الأوابد

(تم التحويل من Ferae)

الأوابد Ferae
Temporal range: آخر الطباشيري - الحاضر
Serengeti Lion 1.jpg
Lion
التصنيف العلمي
مملكة: الحيوان
Phylum: الحبليات
Class: الثدييات
Infraclass: الوحوش الحقيقية
Magnorder: Boreoeutheria
Superorder: Laurasiatheria
(unranked): الأوابد Ferae
الرتب

الأوابد (وهو ترجمة الاسم اللاتيني Ferae والذي يعني wild بالإنگليزية وأردنا اسماً يختلف عن وحش ومتوحش) هو فرع حيوي من الثدييات، يتألف من رتب آكلات اللحوم (وهي أكثر من 260 نوع، حول العالم) وPholidota (ثمانية أنواع من pangolin في أفريقيا وآسيا المداريتين). Pangolins do not look much like carnivorans (wolves, cats, seals, and so on), and were thought to be the closest relatives of Xenarthra (armadillos, sloths, and so on). But recent DNA research found the close relationship to carnivorans. Ferae also includes Creodonta, extinct primitive carnivoran-like mammals. Several extinct orders, relatives of Pholidota, are members of Ferae as well. These orders are sometimes united with the Pholidota in one, large order, Cimolesta. An alternate name, Ostentoria, has also been proposed for a grouping of Carnivora and Pholidota.[1]

According to recent studies (reflected in the diagram below), the closest relatives of Ferae are Perissodactyla (horses, tapirs and rhinos) and Cetartiodactyla (which combines Artiodactyla--camels, pigs, ruminants and hippos—with Cetacea--whales and dolphins).[2][3] An alternate phylogeny (less supported) holds that the closest relatives to Ferae are Perissodactyla and Chiroptera (bats), not Cetartiodactyla.[4] Ferae together with Perissodactyla has been called Zooamata. Ferae, Perissodactyla, and Chiroptera together has been called Pegasoferae.

   الوحوش اللوراسية   


 Eulipotyphla


   Scrotifera   


 الخفاشيات


   Fereuungulata   

   الأوابد   


 الپنگولات



 آكلات اللحوم



   الحافريات   


 ظلفيات فردية الأصابع    



 مزدوجات الأصابع






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الهامش

  1. ^ Amrine-madsen, H. (2003). "A new phylogenetic marker, apolipoprotein B, provides compelling evidence for eutherian relationships". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 28 (2): 225–240. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00118-0. PMID 12878460. Retrieved 2008-04-19. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  2. ^ BioMed Central | Full text | A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals
  3. ^ Zhou, X.; et al. (2011). "Phylogenomic analysis resolves the interordinal relationships and rapid diversification of the Laurasiatherian mammals". Systematic Biology. 61 (1): 150–64. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syr089. PMC 3243735. PMID 21900649. Retrieved 3 October 2011. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help) (Advance Access; published online 7 September 2011)
  4. ^ Nishihara, H.; Hasegawa, M; Okada, N (2006). "Pegasoferae, an unexpected mammalian clade revealed by tracking ancient retroposon insertions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (26): 9929–34. doi:10.1073/pnas.0603797103. PMC 1479866. PMID 16785431.