الوحوش الحقيقية الشمالية

(تم التحويل من Boreoeutheria)

الوحوش الحقيقية الشمالية
Temporal range: آخر الطباشيري - الهولوسين، 65–0 م‌س
Talpa europaea MHNT.jpg
European mole (Talpa europaea)
التصنيف العلمي e
مملكة: الحيوانية
Phylum: حبليات
تحت جماعات

الوحوش الحقيقية الشمالية Boreoeutheria (مرادفة لـ Boreotheria) (من اليونانية: βόρειο شمال + ευ حقيقي/جميل + θεριό وحش) هو فرع (رتبة عظمى magnorder) في الثدييات المشيمية تتألف من الأصنوفات الشقيقة وحوش لوراسيا Laurasiatheria (معظم الثدييات الحافرية، ومعظم آكلات اللحوم ذوات المخالب، وجماعات عديدة أخرى) و Euarchontoglires (Supraprimates). وقد أيدتها بقوة تحاليل تسلسل الدنا، وكذلك retrotransposon presence/absence data.

The earliest known fossils belonging to this group date to about 65 million years ago, shortly after the K-Pg extinction event, though molecular data suggests they may have originated earlier, during the Cretaceous period.[1]

With the exception of rhinoceroses and cetaceans, male members of the clade share the distinction of external testicles.

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التبويب

Class Mammalia


كلادوگرام

Eutheria  

Xenarthra

  Epitheria  

Afrotheria

  Boreoeutheria  

   

Laurasiatheria

   

Euarchontoglires

ملاحظات

While it is agreed that the cetaceans evolved within artiodactyls much of the branching order within Laurasiatheria is not yet well resolved. In particular the most difficult order to place definitively has been and still is the Perissodactyla. Their placement within the Zooamata is controversial.

One study has suggested that the carnivores, cetaceans, chiroptera and ungulates form an ancient clade.[2] This is supported by another study that suggests that Eulipotyphla are the earliest diverging clade within the Laurasiatheria.[3]

الهامش

  1. ^ O'Leary, M. A., Bloch, J. I., Flynn, J. J., Gaudin, T. J., Giallombardo, A., Giannini, N. P., ... & Cirranello, A. L. (2013). The placental mammal ancestor and the post–K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science, 339(6120): 662-667.
  2. ^ Tsagkogeorga G, Parker J, Stupka E, Cotton JA, Rossiter SJ (2013) Phylogenomic analyses elucidate the evolutionary relationships of bats. Curr Biol pii: S0960-9822(13)01130-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.09.014
  3. ^ Morgan CC, Foster PG, Webb AE, Pisani D, McInerney JO, O'Connell MJ (2013) Heterogeneous models place the root of the placental mammal phylogeny. Mol Biol Evol 30(9):2145-256 doi: 10.1093/molbev/mst117

مراجع اضافية

  • Waddell PJ, Kishino H, Ota R (2001) A phylogenetic foundation for comparative mammalian genomics. Genome Inform Ser Workshop Genome Inform 12: 141–154.
  • William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, Mark S. Springer et al., Resolution of the Early Placental Mammal Radiation Using Bayesian Phylogenetics,Science, Vol 294, Issue 5550, 2348–2351, 14 December 2001.
  • Kriegs, Jan Ole, Gennady Churakov, Martin Kiefmann, Ursula Jordan, Juergen Brosius, Juergen Schmitz. (2006) Retroposed Elements as Archives for the Evolutionary History of Placental Mammals. PLoS Biol 4(4): e91.[1] (pdf version)
  • Blanchette M, Green ED, Miller W, Haussler D. (2004) Reconstructing large regions of an ancestral mammalian genome in silico. Genome Res. 2004 Dec;14(12):2412-23. ([2])
  • Ma J, Zhang L, Suh BB, Raney BJ, Burhans RC, Kent WJ, Blanchette M, Haussler D, Miller W. (2006) Reconstructing contiguous regions of an ancestral genome. Genome Res. 2006 Dec;16(12):1557-65. Epub 2006 Sep 18. ([3])

وصلات خارجية