معركة مانيلا (1898)

(تم التحويل من Battle of Manila (1898))
Battle of Manila
جزء من the Philippine Revolution and Spanish–American War
American flag raised over Fort Santiago 8-13-1898.jpg
"Raising the American flag over Fort Santiago, Manila, on the evening of August 13, 1898." drawing from Harper's Pictorial History of the War with Spain.
التاريخ13 August 1898
الموقعManila, Philippines
النتيجة

American-Filipino victory

المتحاربون

 الولايات المتحدة


Filipino Revolutionaries
Spanish Empire
القادة والزعماء

Wesley Merritt
George Dewey
Arthur MacArthur, Jr.


Emilio Aguinaldo
Antonio Luna
Fermin Jáudenes
Basilio Augustín
القوة

10,700


40,000
13,000
الإصابات والخسائر
6 killed (United States) 49 killed, 1 fort

قالب:Campaignbox Spanish-American War: Pacific

Photo of American soldiers guarding a bridge over the Pasig River after the battle, August 13, 1898
"Insurgent (Filipino) soldiers in the Philippines, 1899"(original caption)

قالب:Battles of Manila

The Battle of Manila (Filipino: Labanan sa Maynila; بالاسپانية: Batalla de Manila), sometimes called the Mock Battle of Manila,[1] was a land engagement which took place in Manila on August 13, 1898, at the end of the Spanish–American War, four months after the decisive victory by Commodore Dewey's Asiatic Squadron at the Battle of Manila Bay. The belligerents were Spanish forces led by Governor-General of the Philippines Fermín Jáudenes, and American forces led by United States Army Brigadier General Wesley Merritt and United States Navy Commodore George Dewey. American forces were supported by units of the Philippine Revolutionary Army, led by Emilio Aguinaldo.

The battle is sometimes referred to as the "Mock Battle of Manila"[1] because the local Spanish and American generals, who were legally still at war, secretly and jointly planned the battle to transfer control of the city center from the Spanish to the Americans while keeping the Philippine Revolutionary Army, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, out of the city center.[2]

The battle left American forces in control of Intramuros, the center of Manila, surrounded by Philippine revolutionary forces, creating the conditions for the Battle of Manila of 1899 and the start of the Philippine–American War.

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Background

After the American victory in Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, the United States Navy, under Admiral George Dewey, blockaded the city of Manila and waited for land forces to arrive. The United States organized the Eighth Army Corps, dubbed the Philippine Expeditionary Force, under the command of Major General Wesley Merritt.[3] On May 16, the vanguard of the force left San Francisco under the command of Brigadier General Thomas M. Anderson.[4] Merritt, on the same day, asked for information concerning the strength of the Spanish in the Philippines. The American consul in Hong Kong gave the information needed: 21,000 men including 4,000 Filipinos, all except 1,000 of them in Manila.[5] Dewey, however, sent more accurate information: around 40,000 troops including around 16,000 Filipinos, about 15,000 were situated in Manila, and nine artillery guns in Manila.[5] By mid-June, some 40,000 Filipino revolutionaries under General Antonio Luna had dug fourteen miles of trenches around Manila. Filipino revolutionaries, seizing control of Manila's only pumping station, cut off the water supply to the city.[6]


See also

References

  1. ^ أ ب "The evolution of Manila". Presidential Library and Museum. Government of the Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 14 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
  2. ^ Agoncillo 1990, pp. 194–195.
  3. ^ Wolff 2006, p. 92.
  4. ^ Wolff 2006, p. 95.
  5. ^ أ ب Agoncillo 1960, pp. 169–170.
  6. ^ Karnow 1990, p. 115.

Bibliography


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