ناقلة نفط

(تم التحويل من ناقلات النفط)
ناقلة النفط التجارية أبكايك
ناقلة النفط التجارية أبقيق، in ballast
Class overview
Name:ناقلة نفط
Oil tanker
Subclasses:Handysize, Panamax, Aframax,Suezmax,VLCC,ULCC
Built:c. 1863 – present
In service:4,024 (above 10,000 طن  long حمولة).[1]
السمات العامة
الطراز والنوع: سفينة ناقلة
السعة: up to 550,000 بالطن
ملاحظات: Rear house, full hull, midships pipeline
منظر جانبي لناقلة نفط.

ناقلة النفط ، أو ناقلة البترول، هي سفينة تم تصميمها لنقل النفط السائل. يوجد نوعان أساسيان من ناقلات النفط؛ ناقلات النفط الخام ، وناقلات النفط المنتج.[2] وتقوم ناقلات النفط الخام بنقل كميات كبيرة من النفط الخام الغير مكرر من أماكن استخراجه إلى المصافي.[2] أما ناقلات النفط المنتج ، فتكون أصغر، وتم تصميميها لنقل الپتروكيماويات من المصافي إلى نقاط بالقرب من أسواق المستهلك. For example, moving crude oil from oil wells in a producing country to refineries in another country. Product tankers, generally much smaller, are designed to move refined products from refineries to points near consuming markets. For example, moving gasoline from refineries in Europe to consumer markets in Nigeria and other West African nations.

Oil tankers are often classified by their size as well as their occupation. The size classes range from inland or coastal tankers of a few thousand metric tons of deadweight (DWT) to the mammoth ultra large crude carriers (ULCCs) of 550,000 بالطن. Tankers move approximately 2.0 billion طن متري (2.2 billion short tons) of oil every year.[3][4] Second only to pipelines in terms of efficiency,[4] the average cost of transport of crude oil by tanker amounts to only US[convert: unit mismatch] ($0.02 to $0.03 per غالون أمريكي).[4]

Some specialized types of oil tankers have evolved. One of these is the naval replenishment oiler, a tanker which can fuel a moving vessel. Combination ore-bulk-oil carriers and permanently moored floating storage units are two other variations on the standard oil tanker design. Oil tankers have been involved in a number of damaging and high-profile oil spills. As a result, they are subject to stringent design and operational regulations.

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التاريخ

The Falls of Clyde is the oldest surviving American tanker and the world's only surviving sail-driven oil tanker.[5]

The technology of oil transportation has evolved alongside the oil industry. Although human use of oil reaches to prehistory, the first modern commercial exploitation dates back to James Young's manufacture of paraffin in 1850.[6] In the early 1850s, oil began to be exported from Upper Burma, then a British colony. The oil was moved in earthenware vessels to the river bank where it was then poured into boat holds for transportation to Britain.[7]

In the 1860s, Pennsylvania oil fields became a major supplier of oil, and a center of innovation after Edwin Drake had struck oil near Titusville, Pennsylvania.[8] Break-bulk boats and barges were originally used to transport Pennsylvania oil in 40-غالون-أمريكي (150 ل) wooden barrels.[8] But transport by barrel had several problems. The first problem was weight: they weighed 29 kiloغرامs (64 رطل), representing 20% of the total weight of a full barrel.[9] Other problems with barrels were their expense, their tendency to leak, and the fact that they were generally used only once. The expense was significant: for example, in the early years of the Russian oil industry, barrels accounted for half the cost of petroleum production.[9]


الأخوان نوبل

The Glückauf grounded in heavy fog at Blue Point Beach on Fire Island.

تكسير احتكار ستاندرد أويل

الحرب العالمية الاولى

Underway replenishment was pioneered aboard the USS Maumee

الحرب العالمية الثانية

Allied oil tankers were often targeted by U-Boats in World War II


عصر الناقلات العملاقة

Until 1956, tankers were designed to be able to navigate the Suez Canal.[10] This size restriction became much less of a priority after the closing of the canal during the Suez Crisis of 1956.[10] Forced to move oil around the Cape of Good Hope, shipowners realized that bigger tankers were the key to more efficient transport.[10][11] While a typical T2 tanker of the World War II era was 162 مترs (532 قدم) long and had a capacity of 16,500 بالطن, the ultra-large crude carriers (ULCC) built in the 1970s were over 400 مترs (1,300 قدم) long and had a capacity of 500,000 بالطن.[12] Several factors encouraged this growth. Hostilities in the Middle East which interrupted traffic through the Suez Canal contributed, as did nationalization of Middle East oil refineries.[11] Fierce competition among shipowners also played a part.[11] But apart from these considerations is a simple economic advantage: the larger an oil tanker is, the more cheaply it can move crude oil, and the better it can help meet growing demands for oil.[11]

In 1955 the world's largest supertanker was 30٬708 GRT[13] and 47,500 بالطن:[14] SS Spyros Niarchos launched that year by Vickers Armstrongs Shipbuilders Ltd in England for Greek shipping magnate Stavros Niarchos.

In 1958 United States shipping magnate Daniel K. Ludwig broke the record of 100,000 long tons of heavy displacement.[15] His Universe Apollo displaced 104,500 long tons, a 23% increase from the previous record-holder, Universe Leader which also belonged to Ludwig.[15][16]

The Knock Nevis rivals some of the world's largest buildings in size

The world's largest supertanker was built in 1979 at the Oppama shipyard by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., named Seawise Giant. This ship was built with a capacity of 564,763 بالطن, a length overall of 458.45 مترs (1,504.1 قدم) and a draft of 24.611 مترs (80.74 قدم).[17] She had 46 tanks, 31,541 متر مربعs (339,500 قدم2) of deck, and at her full load draft, could not navigate the English Channel.[18]

Seawise Giant was renamed Happy Giant in 1989, Jahre Viking in 1991,[17] and Knock Nevis in 2004 (when she was converted into a permanently moored storage tanker).[18][19] In 2009 she was sold for the last time, renamed Mont, and scrapped.[20]

As of 2011, the world's two largest working supertankers are the TI-class supertankers TI Europe and TI Oceania.[21][22] These ships were built in 2002 and 2003 as Hellespont Alhambra and Hellespont Tara for the Greek Hellespont Steamship Corporation.[23] Hellespont sold these ships to Overseas Shipholding Group and Euronav in 2004.[24] Each of the sister ships has a capacity of over 441,500 بالطن, a length overall of 380.0 مترs (1,246.7 قدم) and a cargo capacity of 3,166,353 برميلs (503,409,900 ل).[25] They were the first ULCCs to be double-hulled.[23] To differentiate them from smaller ULCCs, these ships are sometimes given the V-Plus size designation.[25][26]

With the exception of the pipeline, the tanker is the most cost-effective way to move oil today.[27] Worldwide, tankers carry some 2 بليون برميلs (3.2×1011 ل) annually, and the cost of transportation by tanker amounts to only US$0.02 per gallon at the pump.[27]


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تصنيفات الأحجام

تصنيفات أحجام ناقلات النفط
AFRA Scale[28] Flexible market scale[28]
الفئة Size in DWT الفئة Size in DWT New
price[29]
Used
price[30]
General Purpose tanker 10,000 - 24,999 Product tanker 10,000 - 60,000 $43M $42.5M
Medium Range tanker 25,000 - 44,999 Panamax 60,000 - 80,000
LR1 (Large Range 1) 45,000 - 79,999 Aframax 80,000 - 120,000 $58M $60.7M
LR2 (Large Range 2) 80,000 - 159,999 Suezmax 120,000 - 200,000
VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier) 160,000 - 319,999 VLCC 200,000 - 320,000 $120M $116M
ULCC (Ultra Large Crude Carrier) 320,000 - 549,999 ULCC 320,000 - 550,000
Hellespont Alhambra (now TI Asia), a ULCC TI class supertanker, the largest ocean going ships in the world
Tatiana B and Florence B two bunkering tankers

In 1954, Shell Oil developed the "average freight rate assessment" (AFRA) system which classifies tankers of different sizes. To make it an independent instrument, Shell consulted the London Tanker Brokers' Panel (LTBP). At first, they divided the groups as General Purpose for tankers under 25,000 بالطن; Medium Range for ships between 25,000 and 45,000 بالطن and Long Range for the then-enormous ships that were larger than 45,000 بالطن. The ships became larger during the 1970s, which prompted rescaling.[28]

The system was developed for tax reasons as the tax authorities wanted evidence that the internal billing records were correct. Before the New York Mercantile Exchange started trading crude oil futures in 1983, it was difficult to determine the exact price of oil, which could change with every contract. Shell and BP, the first companies to use the system, abandoned the AFRA system in 1983, later followed by the US oil companies. However, the system is still used today. Besides that, there is the flexible market scale, which takes typical routes and lots of 500,000 برميلs (79,000 م3).[31]

Merchant oil tankers carry a wide range of hydrocarbon liquids ranging from crude oil to refined petroleum products.[2] Their size is measured in deadweight metric tons (DWT). Crude carriers are among the largest, ranging from 55,000 بالطن Panamax-sized vessels to ultra-large crude carriers (ULCCs) of over 440,000 بالطن.[32]

Smaller tankers, ranging from well under 10,000 بالطن to 80,000 بالطن Panamax vessels, generally carry refined petroleum products, and are known as product tankers.[32] The smallest tankers, with capacities under 10,000 بالطن generally work near-coastal and inland waterways.[32] Although they were in the past, ships of the smaller Aframax and Suezmax classes are no longer regarded as supertankers.[33]

VLCC and ULCC

Knock Nevis (1979–2010), a ULCC supertanker and the longest ship ever built.

"Supertankers" are the largest tankers, and the largest man-made mobile structures. They include very large and ultra-large crude carriers (VLCCs and ULCCs[مطلوب توضيح]) with capacities over 250,000 بالطن. These ships can transport 2,000,000 برميلs (320,000 م3) of oil/318,000 metric tons.[32] By way of comparison, the United Kingdom consumed about 1.6 مليون برميلs (250,000 م3) of oil per day in 2009.[34] ULCCs commissioned in the 1970s were the largest vessels ever built, but have all now been scrapped. A few newer ULCCs remain in service, none of which are more than 400 meters long.[35]

Because of their size, supertankers often cannot enter port fully loaded.[11] These ships can take on their cargo at offshore platforms and single-point moorings.[11] On the other end of the journey, they often pump their cargo off to smaller tankers at designated lightering points off-coast.[11] Supertanker routes are typically long, requiring them to stay at sea for extended periods, often around seventy days at a time.[11]

AMYNTAS, a brand new ULCC inaugurated in February 2019 berthing at Donges / Saint-Nazaire (France).


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التأجير

The act of hiring a ship to carry cargo is called chartering. Tankers are hired by four types of charter agreements: the voyage charter, the time charter, the bareboat charter, and contract of affreightment.[36] In a voyage charter the charterer rents the vessel from the loading port to the discharge port.[36] In a time charter the vessel is hired for a set period of time, to perform voyages as the charterer directs.[36] In a bareboat charter the charterer acts as the ship's operator and manager, taking on responsibilities such as providing the crew and maintaining the vessel.[37] Finally, in a contract of affreightment or COA, the charterer specifies a total volume of cargo to be carried in a specific time period and in specific sizes, for example a COA could be specified as 1 مليون برميل (160,000 م3) of JP-5 in a year's time in 25,000-برميل (4,000 م3) shipments.[38] A completed chartering contract is known as a charter party.[38]

One of the key aspects of any charter party is the freight rate, or the price specified for carriage of cargo.[39] The freight rate of a tanker charter party is specified in one of four ways: by a lump sum rate, by rate per ton, by a time charter equivalent rate, or by Worldscale rate.[39] In a lump sum rate arrangement, a fixed price is negotiated for the delivery of a specified cargo, and the ship's owner/operator is responsible to pay for all port costs and other voyage expenses.[40] Rate per ton arrangements are used mostly in chemical tanker chartering, and differ from lump sum rates in that port costs and voyage expenses are generally paid by the charterer.[41] Time charter arrangements specify a daily rate, and port costs and voyage expenses are also generally paid by the charterer.[41]

The Worldwide Tanker Normal Freight Scale, often referred to as Worldscale, is established and governed jointly by the Worldscale Associations of London and New York.[39] Worldscale establishes a baseline price for carrying a metric ton of product between any two ports in the world.[42] In Worldscale negotiations, operators and charterers will determine a price based on a percentage of the Worldscale rate.[42] The baseline rate is expressed as WS 100.[42] If a given charter party settled on 85% of the Worldscale rate, it would be expressed as WS 85.[42] Similarly, a charter party set at 125% of the Worldscale rate would be expressed as WS 125.[42]

أسواق حديثة

الأسعار المكافئة للإيجار اليومي، مؤخراً
مقاس
السفينة
الشحن المسار 2004 2005 2006 2010[43] 2012[43] 2014[43] 2015[43]
VLCC Crude Persian Gulf–Japan[44] $95,250 $59,070 $51,550 $38,000 $20,000 $28,000 $57,000
Suezmax Crude West Africa –
Caribbean or
East Coast of North America[45]
$64,800 $47,500 $46,000 $31,000 $18,000 $28,000 $46,000
Aframax Crude Cross-Mediterranean[46] $43,915 $39,000 $31,750 $20,000 $15,000 $25,000 $37,000
All product carriers Caribbean –
East Coast of North America
or Gulf of Mexico[46]
$24,550 $25,240 $21,400 $11,000 $11,000 $12,000 $21,000

The market is affected by a wide variety of variables such as the supply and demand of oil as well as the supply and demand of oil tankers. Some particular variables include winter temperatures, excess tanker tonnage, supply fluctuations in the Persian Gulf, and interruptions in refinery services.[44]

In 2006, time-charters tended towards long term. Of the time charters executed in that year, 58% were for a period of 24 or more months, 14% were for periods of 12 to 24 months, 4% were from 6 to 12 months, and 24% were for periods of less than 6 months.[46]

From 2003, the demand for new ships started to grow, resulting in 2007 in a record breaking order backlog for shipyards, exceeding their capacity with rising newbuilding prices as a result.[47] This resulted in a glut of ships when demand dropped due to a weakened global economy and dramatically reduced demand in the United States. The charter rate for very large crude carriers, which carry two million barrels of oil, had peaked at $309,601 per day in 2007 but had dropped to $7,085 per day by 2012, far below the operating costs of these ships.[48] As a result, several tanker operators laid up their ships. Prices rose significantly in 2015 and early 2016, but delivery of new tankers was projected to keep prices in check.[43]

Owners of large oil tanker fleets include Teekay Corporation, A P Moller Maersk, DS Torm, Frontline, MOL Tankship Management, Overseas Shipholding Group, and Euronav.[49]

خصائص الأساطيل

مشغلو الناقلات الكبرى[49]
  1. Teekay Corporation
  2. Frontline
  3. MOL Tankship Management
  4. Overseas Shipholding Group
  5. Euronav
  6. Tanker Pacific Management
  7. Kristen Navigation
  8. Nippon Yusen Kaisha
  9. MISC Berhad
  10. Tsakos Group
  11. Vela International Marine
  12. NITC
  13. Hyundai Merchant Marine
  14. BW Shipping
  15. Dynacom Tankers Management
  16. Maersk Tankers
  17. BP Shipping
  18. Sovcomflot
  19. Novorossiysk Shipping
  20. National Shipping Company of Saudi Arabia
  21. Shipping Corporation of India
  22. Thenamaris
  23. TORM
  24. Chevron Shipping
  25. COSCO Group
  26. Kuwait Oil Tanker Co.
  27. Titan Ocean
  28. China Shipping Development Tanker
  29. SK Shipping
  30. Minerva Marine

حركة الشحن

أعلام الدول

أعلام للملائمة

دورة حياة السفن

Tankers may carry unusual cargoes such as grain on their final trip to the scrapyard.


تسعير السفن

الحجم 1985 2005
32–45,000 بالطن US$18M $43M
80–105,000 بالطن $22M $58M
250–280,000 بالطن $47M $120M


التصميم الهيكلي والهندسي الحالي

تصميمات هل

Single hull, Double bottom, and Double hull ship cross sections. Green lines are watertight; black structure is not watertight


نظام الغاز الخامل


عمليات الشحن

Cargo flows between a tanker and a shore station by way of marine loading arms attached at the tanker's cargo manifold.


تجهيزات ما قبل النقل

تحميل الشحنة

Oil is pumped on and off the ship by way of connections made at the cargo manifold.


إنزال الشحنة

This cargo pump aboard a VLCC can move 5,000 cubic meters of product per hour.

تنظيم الناقلة

The nozzle of an automated tank cleaning machine


استخدامات خاصة لناقلات النفط

تجديد السفن


ناقلات ركاز النفط

The OBO-carrier Maya. The picture is showing both the cargo hold hatches used for bulk and the pipes used for oil

وحدات التخزين العائمة

Floating storage units, often former oil tankers, accumulate oil for tankers to retrieve.


التلوث

The Exxon Valdez spilled 10.8 million gallons of oil into Alaska's Prince William Sound.[50]

انظر أيضا

المصادر

ملاحظات

  1. ^ Office of Data and Economic Analysis, 2006:6.
  2. ^ أ ب ت Hayler and Keever, 2003:14-2.
  3. ^ UNCTAD 2006, p. 4.
  4. ^ أ ب ت Huber, 2001: 211.
  5. ^ Delgado, James (1988). "Falls of Clyde National Historic Landmark Study". Maritime Heritage Program. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-02-24.
  6. ^ Woodman, 1975, p. 175.
  7. ^ Woodman, 1975, p. 176.
  8. ^ أ ب Chisholm, 19:320.
  9. ^ أ ب Tolf, 1976, p. 54.
  10. ^ أ ب ت Marine Log, 2008.
  11. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د Huber, 2001, p. 23.
  12. ^ Huber, 2001, fig. 1-16.
  13. ^ Meare, David. "Tirgoviste and Spyros Niarchos – IMO 5337329". Ship spotting. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  14. ^ Corlett 1981, p. 25.
  15. ^ أ ب "Dona's Daughter". Time (magazine). 1958-12-15. Retrieved 2008-04-08.
  16. ^ "The Biggest Tankers". Time (magazine). 1957-10-14. Retrieved 2008-04-08.
  17. ^ أ ب "Knock Nevis (7381154)". Miramar Ship Index. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
  18. ^ أ ب Singh, 1999.
  19. ^ "Previous owners". Miramar Ship Index. 2016..
  20. ^ Bockmann, Michelle Wiese; Porter, Janet (15 December 2009). "Knock Nevis heading for Indian scrapyard". Lloyd's List. Archived from the original on January 22, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
  21. ^ "Overseas Shipholding Group Enters FSO Market". Press Releases. Overseas Shipholding Group. 2008-02-28. Archived from the original on 2016-01-23. Retrieved 2008-04-08.
  22. ^ "World's Largest Double-Hull Tanker Newbuildings Fly Marshall Islands Flag" (press release). International Registries. 2007-04-30. Retrieved 2008-04-08.
  23. ^ أ ب "Hellespont Alhambra". Wärtsilä. 2008. Archived from the original on February 22, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-08.
  24. ^ "2000's Fleet Renewal". Group History. Hellespont Shipping Corporation. 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-08.
  25. ^ أ ب "Fleet List". Tankers International. March 2008. Archived from the original on 2010-09-03. Retrieved 2008-04-08.
  26. ^ Overseas Shipholding Group, 2008, Fleet List.
  27. ^ أ ب Huber, 2001, p. 211.
  28. ^ أ ب ت Evangelista, Joe, Ed. (2002). "Scaling the Tanker Market" (PDF). Surveyor. American Bureau of Shipping (4): 5–11. Retrieved 2008-02-27. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  29. ^ UNCTAD 2006, p. 41. Price for new vessel $M in 2005.
  30. ^ UNCTAD 2006, p. 42. Five year old ship in $M in 2005.
  31. ^ Evangelista, Joe, ed. (Winter 2002). "Shipping Shorthand" (PDF). Surveyor. American Bureau of Shipping (4): 5–11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
  32. ^ أ ب ت ث Hayler and Keever, 2003:14-3.
  33. ^ For example, Time referred to the Universe Apollo, which displaced 104,500 long tons, as a supertanker in the 1958 article Time Magazine (1958-12-15). "Dona's Daughter". Time Magazine. Time Incorporated. Retrieved 2008-04-08.
  34. ^ Rogers, Simon (2010-06-09). "BP energy statistics: the world in oil consumption, reserves and energy production". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  35. ^ "How much bigger can container ships get?". BBC. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  36. ^ أ ب ت Huber 2001, p. 212.
  37. ^ Huber 2001, pp. 212–13.
  38. ^ أ ب Huber 2001, p. 213.
  39. ^ أ ب ت Huber 2001, p. 225.
  40. ^ Huber 2001, pp. 227–28.
  41. ^ أ ب Huber 2001, p. 228.
  42. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Huber 2001, pp. 225–26.
  43. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Oil tanker freight-rate volatility increases, Rajesh Rana, Oil & Gas Journal, 2016-07-04
  44. ^ أ ب UNCTAD 2007, p. 61.
  45. ^ UNCTAD 2007, p. 62.
  46. ^ أ ب ت UNCTAD 2007, p. 63.
  47. ^ Bakkelund, Jørn (March 2008). "The Shipbuilding Market". The Platou Report. Platou: 9–13. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2009. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  48. ^ WSJ 2013, p. B7.
  49. ^ أ ب Cochran, Ian (March 2008). "Tanker Operators Top 30 Tanker companies" (iPaper). Tanker Shipping Review. Platou: 6–17. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  50. ^ Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council (1999). "Frequently asked questions about the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill". www.state.ak.us. State of Alaska. Retrieved 2008-10-08. Cite has empty unknown parameters: |accessdaymonth=, |accessyear=, |month=, |accessmonthday=, and |coauthors= (help)

بيبيليوگرافيا

قراءات إضافية

  • Spyrou, Andrew G. From T-2 to Supertanker: Development of the Oil Tanker, 1940-2000. [United States]: iUniverse, Inc. ISBN 0-595-36068-8.
  • Sullivan, George (1978). Supertanker!: The Story of the World's Biggest Ships. New York: Dodd Mead. ISBN 0-396-07527-4.
  • Stopford, Martin (1997). Maritime economics. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-15309-3.

وصلات خارجية