لايدن

"ليدن" تحوّل إلى هنا. لمطالعة استخدامات أخرى، انظر ليدن (توضيح).
لايدن
Leiden
Leiden Panorama 7.JPG
Leiden, Netherlands - panoramio (25).jpg Leiden, Netherlands - panoramio (36).jpg
OPSTANDINGSKERK (32647029656).jpg
Flag of لايدن
Flag
Coat of arms of لايدن
Coat of arms
موقع لايدن
البلد هولندا
المقاطعة  South Holland
الحكم[1]
 • الهيئة مجلس بلدي
 • العمدة Henri Lenferink (PvdA)
المساحة[2]
 • البلدية data missing كم² (Formatting error: invalid input when rounding ميل²)
 • البر data missing كم² (Formatting error: invalid input when rounding ميل²)
 • الماء خطأ لوا: خطأ في التعبير: علامة ترقيم غير متعرف عليها "["٫ كم² (Formatting error: invalid input when rounding ميل²)
الارتفاع[3] 0 m (0 ft)
التعداد(Municipality, أغسطس 2017; Urban and Metro, مايو 2014)[4][5]
 • البلدية data missing
 • الحضر 258٬923
 • العمرانية 344٬299
صفة المواطن Leidenaar
منطقة التوقيت CET (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+1)
 • Summer (التوقيت الصيفي) CEST (UTC+2)
Post code range 2300-2334
مفتاح الهاتف 071
الموقع الإلكتروني www.leiden.nl

Ltspkr.png

لَيْدَن ( /ˈldən/; النطق الهولندي: [ˈlɛi̯də(n)]  ( استمع) أو لاَيِدَن في بعض الكتابات) LeidenLtspkr.png مدينة بمقاطعة جنوب هولندا من هولندا. The municipality of Leiden had a population of 123,856 in August 2017, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp, Voorschoten and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants. The Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, and in the larger Leiden urban area also Teylingen, Noordwijk, and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres (12 miles) from The Hague to its south and some 40 km (25 mi) from Amsterdam to its north. The recreational area of the Kaag Lakes (Kagerplassen) lies just to the northeast of Leiden.

A university city since 1575, Leiden has been one of Europe's most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Leiden is a typical university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city and the many students from all over the world give the city a bustling, vivid and international atmosphere. Many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden’s motto: ‘City of Discoveries’. The city houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, and Leiden University Medical Center. Leiden University is one of Europe’s top universities, with thirteen Nobel Prize winners. It is a member of the League of European Research Universities and positioned highly in all international academic rankings. It is twinned with Oxford, the location of the United Kingdom's oldest university. Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences (Leidse Hogeschool) together have around 35,000 students. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave.

Leiden is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but also in the arts. One of the world's most famous painters, Rembrandt, was born and educated in Leiden. Other famous Leiden painters include Lucas van Leyden, Jan van Goyen and Jan Steen.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

التاريخ

Otto van Veen: Relief of Leiden (1574), Inundated meadows allow the Dutch fleet access to the Spanish infantry positions.
17th century houses along the Herengracht.
Historical population
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1398 5٬000 —    
1497 11٬000 +0.80%
1514 14٬250 +1.53%
1574 12٬456 −0.22%
1581 12٬144 −0.36%
1622 44٬745 +3.23%
1632 44٬000 −0.17%
1665 67٬000 +1.28%
1732 70٬000 +0.07%
1750 38٬105 −3.32%
1795 30٬955 −0.46%
Source: Lourens & Lucassen 1997, pp. 112–114

Leiden was formed on an artificial hill (today called the Burcht van Leiden) at the confluence of the rivers Oude and Nieuwe Rijn (Old and New Rhine). In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon. The name is said to be from Germanic *leitha- "canal" [6] in dative pluralis, thus meaning "at the canals". "Canal" is actually not the completely proper word. A leitha (later "lede") was a human-modified natural river, partly natural, partly artificial.

Leiden has in the past erroneously been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum. This particular castellum was thought to be located at the Burcht of Leiden, and the city's name was thought to be derived from the Latin name Lugdunum. However the castellum was in fact closer to the town of Katwijk, whereas the Roman settlement near modern-day Leiden was called Matilo.[7]

ملف:Leiden-Windmill-DeValk.JPG
Windmill museum De Valk

The landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill (motte), was initially subject to the Bishop of Utrecht but around 1100 the burgraves became subject to the county of Holland. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold: Holtland or Holland.

Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Ada, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a civil war against her uncle, William I, Count of Holland. He besieged the stronghold and captured Ada.

Leiden received city rights in 1266. In 1389, its population had grown to about 4,000 persons.


Siege of 1420

In 1420, during the Hook and Cod wars, Duke John III of Bavaria along with his army marched from Gouda in the direction of Leiden in order to conquer the city since Leiden did not pay the new Count of Holland Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, his niece and only daughter of Count William VI of Holland.

Burgrave Filips of Wassenaar and the other local noblemen of the Hook faction assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels. But John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first.

He rolled the cannons along with his army but one which was too heavy went by ship. By firing at the walls and gates with iron balls the citadels fell one by one. Within a week John of Bavaria conquered the castles of Poelgeest, Ter Does, Hoichmade, de Zijl, ter Waerd, Warmond and de Paddenpoel.

On 24 June the army appeared before the walls of Leiden. On 17 August 1420, after a two-month siege the city surrendered to John of Bavaria. The burgrave Filips of Wassenaar was stripped of his offices and rights and lived out his last years in captivity.

16th to 18th centuries


لايدن اليوم

Leiden's west gate, the Morspoort
Leiden's east gate, the Zijlpoort

The city's biggest and most popular annual festival is celebrated at 3 October and is called simply 3 Oktober. The people of Leiden celebrate the end of the Spanish siege of 1574.[8] It typically takes place over the course of two to three days (usually two but three if there's a Sunday involved) and includes parades, a hutspot feast, historical reenactments, a funfair and other events. The city has recently started to host the Leiden International Film Festival, the fastest growing festival of its type in the Netherlands.[9]

Leiden has important functions as a shopping and trade centre for communities around the city. The University of Leiden is famous for its many discoveries including Snells law (by Willebrord Snellius), the famous Leyden jar, a capacitor made from a glass jar, invented in Leiden by Pieter van Musschenbroek in 1746. Another development was in cryogenics: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1913 Nobel prize winner in physics) liquefied helium for the first time (1908) and later managed to reach a temperature of less than one degree above the absolute minimum. Albert Einstein also spent some time at Leiden University during his early to middle career.

The city also houses the Eurotransplant, the international organization responsible for the mediation and allocation of organ donation procedures in Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Slovenia. Leiden also houses the headquarters of Airbus, a global pan-European aerospace and defence corporation and a leading defence and military contractor worldwide. The group includes Airbus, the leading manufacturer of commercial aircraft worldwide.

المعالم

مباني الجامعة

Looking along the Witte Singel (White Moat) towards the 1860 Leiden Observatory building

المدن الشقيقة

لايدن متوأمة مع:

وصلات خارجية

المتاحف والمكتبات

المنطقة

البلديات المجاورة

مع عقارب الساعة:

الإحداثيات: 52°10′N 4°29′E / 52.167°N 4.483°E / 52.167; 4.483

المصادر

  1. ^ "College van burgemeester en wethouders" [Board of mayor and aldermen] (in Dutch). Gemeente Leiden. Archived from the original on 8 July 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  2. ^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  3. ^ "Postcodetool for 2312AT". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  4. ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  5. ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014. 
  6. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". 
  7. ^ Jona Lendering. "Towns in Germania Inferior: Lugdunum (Brittenburg)". Livius.org. Retrieved 11 June 2010. 
  8. ^ Film & Television Coll Europe. Routledge. 2012. p. 315. ISBN 978-1-135-10295-1. 
  9. ^ Dawson, Nick (28 September 2013). "Leiden International Film Festival Announces New US Indie Competition". Filmmaker Magazine. Retrieved 8 October 2013.