كارليا

الإحداثيات: 63°N 32°E / 63°N 32°E / 63; 32

أعلام كارليا
علما كارليا، بالعلم القومي (يسار، بصليب) والعلم الرسمي لجمهورية كارليا الروسية (يمين، بخطوط)
درعا كارليا، الفنلندي (يسار، بتاج) و الروسي (يمين، بدب)

كارليا (الكارلية، والفنلندية والإستونية: Karjala؛ بالروسية: Карелия, Kareliya؛ بالسويدية: Karelen؛ بالإنگليزية: Karelia)، أرض شعب كارليا، هي منطقة في شمال أوروپا ذات أهمية تاريخية لكل من فنلندا وروسيا والسويد. وحالياً هي مقسمة بين جمهورية كارليا الروسية، واوبلاست لنينگراد الروسي، وفنلندا (مناطق كارليا الجنوبية وكارليا الشمالية).

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استخدام الاسم

أجزاء كارليا، كما هم مقسمون تقليدياً.
كيژي پوگوست، أحد الأمثلة الجيدة للعمارة الخشبية الباقية في جزيرة كيژي.

Various subdivisions may be called Karelia. كارليا الفنلندية was a historical province of Finland, and is now divided between Finland and Russia, often called just Karjala in Finnish. The eastern part of this chiefly Lutheran area was ceded to Russia after the Winter War of 1939–40. This area is the "Karelia" of the Karelian question in Finnish politics.

جمهورية كارليا هي كيان اتحادي روسي، يضم ما يسمى "كارليا الشرقية" ومعظم سكانها يدينون بالأرثوذكسية الروسية.

وضمن فنلندا الحالية، فإن Karjala تشير إلى مناطق كارليا الجنوبية والشمالية, although parts of historical Karelia also lies within the region of Kymenlaakso (Miehikkälä وVirolahti, شمال ساڤونيا (Kaavi, Rautavaara وSäyneinen) و جنوب ساڤونيا (Mäntyharju).


الجغرافيا

تمتد كارليا من ساحل البحر الأبيض إلى خليج فنلندا. وتضم أكبر بحيرتين في أوروپا، بحيرة لادوگا و بحيرة اونيگا. ويقع البرزخ الكاريلي بين خليج فنلندا وبحيرة لادوگا.

The border between Karelia and Ingria, the land of the closely related Ingrian people, had originally been the Neva river itself but later on it was moved northward into Karelian isthmus to follow the Sestra River (بالروسية: Сестра), today in the Saint Petersburg metropolitan area, but in 1812–1940 the Russo-Finnish border.

Tver Karelia denotes the villages in the Tver Oblast that are inhabited by Tver Karelians.

View of the old town of Kem' in 1916
Viipuri Castle at the Finnish Gulf. Viipuri was called the capital of Karelia when it was a part of Finland.

التجمعات السكنية

التاريخ

Karelia was bitterly fought over by the Swedes and the Novgorod Republic for a period starting in the 13th-century Swedish-Novgorodian Wars. The Treaty of Nöteborg (Finnish: Pähkinäsaaren rauha) in 1323 divided Karelia between the two. Viborg (Finnish: Viipuri) became the capital of the new Swedish province. In the Treaty of Stolbovo in 1617 large parts of Russian Karelia were ceded to Sweden. Conflicts between the new Swedish rulers and the indigenous population of these areas led to an exodus: thousands of Karelians, including the ancestors of the Tver Karelians, emigrated to Russia.

Pioneers in Karelia, 1900. By Eero Järnefelt

The Treaty of Nystad (Finnish: Uudenkaupungin rauha) in 1721 between Imperial Russia and Sweden ceded most of Karelia to Russia. After Finland had been occupied by Russia in the Finnish War, parts of the ceded provinces (Old Finland) were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1917, Finland became independent and the border was confirmed by the Treaty of Tartu in 1920.


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السياسة

Seat of the Legislative Assembly of Karelia

Karelia is divided between Finland and Russia. The Republic of Karelia is a federal subject of Russia, which was formed in 1991 from the Karelian ASSR. The Karelian Isthmus belongs to the Leningrad Oblast. The Finnish side consists of parts of the regions (maakunta) of South Karelia, North Karelia and Kymenlaakso.

There are some small but enthusiastic groups of Finns campaigning for closer ties between Finland and Karelia. The political expression of these irredentist hopes is called the Karelian question and is about Finland's re-acquisition of the ceded Finnish Karelia. These hopes live on, for instance, in the Karjalan Liitto and ProKarelia. However, ambitions for closer ties with East Karelia do not include territorial demands.

الديمغرافيا

The Karelian language is spoken in the Republic of Karelia and also in the Tver Karelian villages. The Veps language is spoken on both sides of the River Svir. The so-called Karelian dialects of Finnish language which are spoken mainly in Finnish South Karelia form the southeastern dialect group of Finnish. Similar dialects are also spoken in Ingria, which is an area between the Estonian border and Lake Ladoga. They appeared there in the 17th century after the Swedish conquest of the area. The older inhabitants of the Ingria, the Ingrians, have their own language which is related to the Karelian language and the south-eastern dialects of Finnish.[1] The dialects in Finnish North Karelia belong to the large group of Savonian dialects in Eastern and Central Finland. [1] Karelians who evacuated from Finnish Karelia resettled all over Finland and today there are approximately one million people in Finland having their roots in the area ceded to the Soviet Union after the World War II. In Finland, about 5,000 people speak Karelian.

الثقافة

انظر أيضاً


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الهامش

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