إلغاء الخلافة

"The Last Caliph", an illustration in Le Petit Journal illustré in March 1924, shortly after the abolition was carried out.
Abolition of the Caliphate in 1924 as reported in the Times of London, 3 March 1924

The abolition of the Caliphate was the abolishment the world's last widely recognized caliphate on 3 March 1924, decreed by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey as one of reforms following the replacement of the Ottoman Empire with the Republic of Turkey.[1] Abdulmejid II was deposed as the last Ottoman Caliph and Mustafa Sabri as the last Ottoman Shaykh al-Islām. It came less than 18 months after the Abolition of the Ottoman sultanate.

In the years prior to the abolition, during the ongoing Turkish Revolution, the uncertain future of the caliphate provoked strong reactions among the worldwide Muslim community.[2] The potential abolition of the Caliphate had been actively opposed by the Indian-based Khilafat Movement,[1] and created strong feelings and heated debate throughout the Muslim world.[3]

Atatürk reportedly offered the Caliphate to Ahmed Sharif as-Senussi, on the condition that he reside outside Turkey; Senussi declined the offer and confirmed his support for Abdulmejid.[4] At least thirteen different candidates were proposed for the caliphate in subsequent years, but none were able to gain a consensus for the candidacy across the Islamic world.[5][6] Candidates included Abdulmejid II, his predecessor Mehmed VI, King Hussein of the Hejaz, King Yusef of Morocco, Prince Amanullah Khan of Afghanistan, Imam Yahya of Yemen and King Fuad I of Egypt.[5] Unsuccessful “Caliphate conferences” were held in Indonesia in 1924,[6] in 1926 in Cairo and 1931 in Jerusalem.[5][6]

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Ottoman pan-Islamism

In the last 19th century, Ottoman sultan Abdul Hamid II launched his pan-Islamist program in a bid to protect the Ottoman Empire from Western attack and dismemberment, and to crush the Westernizing democratic opposition at home. Being a caliph, the Ottoman sultan was nominally the supreme religious and political leader of all Sunni Muslims across the world. However, this authority was never actually used.

He sent an emissary, Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī, to India in the late 19th century. The cause of the Ottoman monarch evoked religious passion and sympathy amongst Indian Muslims. A large number of Muslim religious leaders began working to spread awareness and develop Muslim participation on behalf of the caliphate. Muslim religious leader Maulana Mehmud Hasan attempted to organize a national war of independence against the British with support from the Ottoman Empire.


نهاية السلطنة

Following the Ottoman defeat in World War I, under Allied direction the Sultan attempted to suppress nationalist movements and secured an official fatwa from the Sheikh ul-Islam declaring them to be un-Islamic. But the nationalists steadily gained momentum and began to enjoy widespread support. Many sensed that the nation was ripe for revolution. In an effort to neutralize this threat, the Sultan agreed to hold elections, with the hope of placating and co-opting the nationalists. To his dismay, nationalist groups swept the polls, prompting the Allied Powers to dissolve the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire in April 1920.

The Sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922.[7] Initially, the National Assembly seemed willing to allow a place for the Caliphate in the new regime and Kemal did not dare to abolish the Caliphate outright, as it still commanded a considerable degree of support from the common people. On 19 November 1922, the Crown Prince Abdülmecid II was elected Caliph by the Turkish National Assembly at Ankara.[7] He established himself in Constantinople on 24 November 1922. But the position had been stripped of any authority, and Abdülmecid's purely ceremonial reign would be short lived.

When Abdülmecid was declared caliph, Kemal refused to allow the traditional Ottoman ceremony to take place, bluntly declaring:

The Caliph has no power or position except as a nominal figurehead.

In response to Abdülmecid's petition for an increase in his allowance, Kemal wrote:

Your office, the Caliphate, is nothing more than a historic relic. It has no justification for existence. It is a piece of impertinence that you should dare write to any of my secretaries!

On 29 October 1923 the National Assembly declared Turkey a republic, and proclaimed Ankara its new capital. After over 600 years, the Ottoman Empire had officially ceased to exist.[7]

تنفيذ القانون

Seyyid Bey
Sayyid Bey convinced the opposition to adopt the law
Kadir Bey
Zeki Bey who gave the game a single rejection of the law

On March 3, 1924, Urfa Deputy Sheikh Saffet Efendi and his fifty-three friends prepared a law proposal consisting of twelve articles on the abolition of the caliphate. The first article that states that the caliph was haled and that the caliph was abolished after the proposal was read; then the 2 nd article about the removal of the dynasty members abroad was accepted exactly. It was approved by 157 of the 158 members who attended the session; The only rejection game was given by Gumushane deputy Zeki Bey . [3]

In the same session, the Law on the Abolition of the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Evkaf and the Ministry of War and General Assembly and the Law of Unity of Education were also adopted and it was decided to establish the Directorate of Religious Affairs. [3]

While members of the dynasty were given ten days to go abroad, Abdülmecid Efendi was put on a train from Çatalca Station with his family of eleven; they were accompanied by the governor of Istanbul and the chief of police.

الإلغاء 1924

Two Indian brothers, Maulana Mohammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, leaders of the Indian-based Khilafat Movement, distributed pamphlets calling upon the Turkish people to preserve the Ottoman Caliphate for the sake of Islam. Under Turkey's new nationalist government, however, this was construed as foreign intervention, and any form of foreign intervention was labelled an insult to Turkish sovereignty, and worse, a threat to State security. Kemal promptly seized his chance. On his initiative, the National Assembly abolished the Caliphate on March 3, 1924. Abdülmecid was sent into exile along with the remaining members of the Ottoman House.

Aftermath

The abolishing of the position of Caliphate and Sheikh ul-Islam was followed by a common, secular authority. Many of the religious communities failed to adjust to the new regime. This was exacerbated by the emigration or impoverishment, due to deteriorating economic conditions. Families that hitherto had financially supported religious community institutions such as hospitals and schools stop doing so.

In Egypt, debated focused on a controversial book by Ali Abdel Raziq which argued for secular government and against a Caliphate.[8]

Today, two frameworks for pan-Islamic coordination exist: the Muslim World League and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, both of which were founded in the 1960s.[9]


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References

  1. ^ أ ب Brown 2011, p. 260.
  2. ^ Nafi 2012, p. 47.
  3. ^ Nafi 2012, p. 31.
  4. ^ Özoğlu 2011, p. 5; Özoğlu quotes 867.00/1801: Mark Lambert Bristol on 19 August 1924.
  5. ^ أ ب ت Ardıc̦ 2012, p. 85.
  6. ^ أ ب ت Pankhurst 2013, p. 59.
  7. ^ أ ب ت Nafi 2016, p. 184.
  8. ^ Nafi 2016, p. 189.
  9. ^ Nafi 2016, p. 190-191.

Bibliography