اتفاقيتا لاهاي 1899 و1907

اتفاقيات لاهاي Hague Conventions هي معاهدتان دوليتان تم التفاوض عليهما في مؤتمري سلام في لاهاي بهولندا: مؤتمر لاهاي الأول في 1899 ومؤتمر لاهاي الثاني في 1907. وبجانب اتفاقيات جنيڤ، كانت اتفاقيات لاهاي بين أول النصوص الرسمية لقوانين الحرب وجرائم الحرب في صلب القانون الدولي غير الديني. وقد أُزمِع عقد مؤتمر ثالث في 1914 وتأجل إلى 1915، إلا أنه لم يُعقد لنشوب الحرب العالمية الأولى. وقد أطلق باحث القانون الدولي الألماني وداعية السلام الكانتي الجديد ڤالتر شوكنگ على المؤتمرين اسم "الاتحاد الدولي لمؤتمري لاهاي".[1] ورأى فيهما نواة لاتحاد دولي ينبغي انعقاده على فترات منتظمة لإرساء السلام وتطوير عمليات القانون الدولي للتسوية السلمية للنزاعات، مؤكداً على "أن اتحاداً سياسياً واضحاً لدول العالم قد تشكل من خلال المؤتمرين الأول والثاني." وتعتبر الوكالات المختلفة التي أنشأها المؤتمران، مثل المحكمة الدائمة للتحكيم، "وكلاء عن، أو أجهزة في، الاتحاد."[2]

A major effort in both the conferences was to create a binding international court for compulsory arbitration to settle international disputes, which was considered necessary to replace the institution of war. This effort, however, failed to realize success either in 1899 or in 1907. The First Conference was generally a success and was focused على جهود نزع السلاح. The Second Conference failed to create a binding international court for compulsory arbitration but did enlarge the machinery for voluntary arbitration, and established conventions regulating the collection of debts, rules of war, and the rights and obligations of neutrals. Along with disarmament and obligatory arbitration, both conferences included negotiations concerning the قوانين الحرب and war crimes. Many of the rules laid down at the Hague Conventions were violated in the First World War. The الغزو الألماني لبلجيكا، for instance, was a violation of Hague III (1907), which states that hostilities must not commence without explicit warning.[3]

Most of the countries present, including الولايات المتحدة, بريطانيا, Russia, فرنسا, China, and Persia, favored a binding international arbitration, but the condition was that the vote should be unanimous, and a few countries, led by ألمانيا, vetoed the idea.

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اتفاقية لاهاي 1899

مؤتمر السلام اقترحه في 29 أغسطس 1898 القيصر الروسي نيقولاي الثاني.[4] لعب نيقولاي والكونت ميخائيل نيقولايڤتش موراڤيوڤ، وزير خارجيته، دوراً محورياً في عقد المؤتمر. The conference opened on May 18, 1899, the Tsar's birthday. The convention was signed on July 29 of that year, and entered into force on September 4, 1900. The Hague Convention of 1899 consisted of four main sections and three additional declarations (the final main section is for some reason identical to the first additional declaration):

  • I: التسوية السلمية للنزاعات الدولية. هذا القسم تضمن إنشاء المحكمة الدولية للتحكيم.
  • II: قوانين وأعراف الحرب على الأرض
  • III: تكيف مبادئ معاهدة جنيڤ لسنة 1864 مع القتال البحري
  • IV: منع اطلاق المقذوفات والمتفجرات من البالون
  • الإعلان I: حول اطلاق مقذوفات ومتفجرات من البالون
  • الإعلان II: حول استخدام المقذوفات بغرض نشر غازات خانقة أو ضارة
  • الإعلان III: حول استخدام الرصاص الذي يتمدد أو يتبطط بسهولة في الجسم البشري

The main effect of the Convention was to ban the use of certain types of modern technology in war: القصف من الجو، الحرب الكيماوية، وhollow point bullets.


اتفاقية لاهاي 1907

وسام تذكاري لمؤتمر 1907

The second conference, in 1907, was generally a failure, with few major decisions. However, the meeting of major powers did prefigure later 20th-century attempts at international cooperation.

The second conference was called at the suggestion of President تيودور روزڤلت in 1904, but postponed because of the war between Russia and Japan. The Second Peace Conference was held from June 15 to October 18, 1907, to expand upon the original Hague Convention, modifying some parts and adding others, with an increased focus on naval warfare. The British tried to secure limitation of armaments, but were defeated by the other powers, led by Germany, which feared a British attempt to stop the growth of the German fleet. Germany also rejected proposals for compulsory arbitration. However, the conference did enlarge the machinery for voluntary arbitration, and established conventions regulating the collection of debts, rules of war, and the rights and obligations of neutrals.

The Final Agreement was signed on October 18, 1907, and entered into force on January 26, 1910. It consisted of thirteen sections, of which twelve were ratified and entered into force:

  • I: The Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
  • II: The Limitation of Employment of Force for Recovery of Contract Debts
  • III: The Opening of Hostilities
  • IV: The Laws and Customs of War on Land
    • includes the Annex on The Qualifications of Belligerents, Chapter II: Prisoners of War
  • V: The Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land
  • VI: وضع السقن التجارية المعادية عند نشوب القتال
  • VII: The Conversion of Merchant Ships into War-Ships
  • VIII: زرع ألغام الملامسة البحرية الأوتوماتيكية
  • IX: Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War
  • X: Adaptation to Maritime War of the Principles of the Geneva Convention
  • XI: Certain Restrictions with Regard to the Exercise of the Right of Capture in Naval War
  • XII: The Creation of an International Prize Court [Not Ratified][5]
  • XIII: حقوق وواجبات القوى المحايدة في الحروب البحرية
رؤساء الوفود إلى مؤتمر لاهاي للسلام الثاني

كما تم توقيع إعلانين:

  • الإعلان I: extending Declaration II from the 1899 Conference to other types of aircraft[6]
  • الإعلان II: حول التحكيم الإجباري

The Brazilian delegation was led by the statesman روي باربوسا, whose contribution was essential for the defense of the principle of legal equality of nations.[7] ضم الوفد البريطاني كلاً من دونالد ماكاي، السير إرنست ساتو وأير كرو. The Russian delegation was led by Fyodor Martens.The Uruguayan delegation was led by José Batlle y Ordóñez, great defender of the compulsory arbitration by creating the idea of an International Court of Arbitration, and an alliance of nations to force the arbitration.

Korea made a futile effort to take part in the conference, in an incident known as the Hague Secret Emissary Affair. King Gojong dispatched يي جون, Yi Sang-Seol and Yi Wi-Jong as envoys to the second peace conference, to argue that معاهدة إيولسا was unjust and ask for help from the international society to recover Korea’s diplomatic sovereignty. كما سافر مبعوث أمريكي، هومر هلبرت، إلى لاهاي to argue against the treaty. All four men were denied entry.[8]

پروتوكول جنيڤ لاتفاقية لاهاي

بالرغم من عدم مناقشته في لاهاي، إلا أن پروتوكول جنيڤ الملحق باتفاقية لاهاي يـُعتبر اضافة إلى الاتفاقية. وقد وُقـِّع في 17 يونيو 1925 and entering into force on February 8, 1928, it permanently bans the use of all forms of chemical and biological warfare in its single section, entitled Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. The protocol grew out of the increasing public outcry against chemical warfare following the use of غاز المسطردة and similar agents in الحرب العالمية الأولى, and fears that chemical and biological warfare could lead to horrific consequences in any future war. The protocol has since been augmented by the اتفاقية الأسلحة البيولوجية (1972) واتفاقية الأسلحة الكيماوية (1993).


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طالع أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Walther Schücking, The international union of the Hague conferences, Clarendon Press, 1918.
  2. ^ The International Union of the Hague Conferences, page vi.
  3. ^ Robinson, James J., ABA Journal 46(9), p.978.
  4. ^ The Proud Tower, page 229
  5. ^ The never-ratified Section XII would have established an international court for the resolution of conflicting claims to captured shipping during wartime.
  6. ^ However this extension was signed, among the great Powers, only by United Kingdom, United States of America and Austria-Hungary. Also Austria-Hungary never ratified it, so this extension remained, practically, only a purpose. Only the Article 25, The attack or bombardment, by whatever means, of towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings which are undefended is prohibited., with the words "whatever means" was a limitation to aerial bombing. "Declaration (XIV) Prohibiting the Discharge of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons. The Hague, 18 October 1907". Retrieved 23 August 2009.
  7. ^ Klein, Robert A. (1974), Sovereign Equality Among States: The History of an Idea, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, p. 61
  8. ^ (YiSeong)이성덕 ( Seong Deog Yi ) (서울국제법연구, Vol.11 No.1, [2004]) [KCI등재]

مراجع

للاستزادة

  • Barcroft, Stephen. "The Hague Peace Conference of 1899". Irish Studies in International Affairs 1989, Vol. 3 Issue 1, pp 55–68.
  • Bettez, David J. "Unfulfilled Initiative: Disarmament Negotiations and the Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907". RUSI Journal: Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, June 1988, Vol. 133 Issue 3, pp 57–62.
  • Scott, James Brown, ed. The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907, Vol. 1, The Conferences. (The Johns Hopkins Press 1909).
  • Trueblood, Benjamin Franklin (1914). The two Hague conferences and their results. American Peace Society.
  • Tuchman, Barbara (1996). The Proud Tower. Ballantine Books. ISBN  0345405013 .