المرصد الجنوبي الأوروپي

(تم التحويل من European Southern Observatory)
المرصد الجنوبي الأوروپي
European Southern Observatory (ESO)
European Southern Observatory (ESO) logo.svgESO member states.svg
شعار ESO وخريطة الدول المشاركة
التشكل1962
النوعمنظمة دولية
الغرضمنظمة أبحاث في الفلك
المقر الرئيسيGarching، ألمانيا
الأعضاءhip
16 (15 بلد أوروپي والبرازيل)
Official language
الألمانية والإنگليزية والاسبانية والإيطالية والبولندية والبرتغالية والتشيكية، الدنماركية والسويدية والفرنسية والفنلندية
المدير العام
Tim de Zeeuw
الموقع الإلكترونيESO.org
Trailer of the European Southern Observatory

المرصد الجنوبي الأوروپي European Southern Observatory ‏(ESO، وسابقاً: المنظمة الأوروبية للأبحاث الفلكية في نصف الكرة الجنوبي؛ بالفرنسية: Organisation Européenne pour des Recherches Astronomiques dans l'Hémisphere Austral) هو منظمة أبحاث دولية من 16 دولة for ground-based astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO has provided astronomers with state-of-the-art research facilities and access to the southern sky. The organisation employs about 730 staff members and receives annual member state contributions of approximately €131 million.[1] Its observatories are located in northern Chile.

ESO has built and operated some of the largest and most technologically advanced telescopes. These include the New Technology Telescope, an early pioneer in the use of active optics, and the Very Large Telescope (VLT), which consists of four individual telescopes, each with a primary mirror 8.2 metre across, and four smaller auxiliary telescopes. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array observes the universe in the millimetre and submillimetre wavelength ranges, and is the world's largest ground-based astronomy project to date. It was completed in March 2013 in an international collaboration by Europe (represented by ESO), North America, East Asia and Chile.[2][3]

Currently under construction is the European Extremely Large Telescope. It will use a 39.3-metre-diameter segmented mirror, and become the world's largest optical reflecting telescope when operational in 2024. Its light-gathering power will allow detailed studies of planets around other stars, the first objects in the universe, supermassive black holes, and the nature and distribution of the dark matter and dark energy which dominate the universe.

ESO's observing facilities have made astronomical discoveries and produced several astronomical catalogues.[4] Its findings include the discovery of the most distant gamma-ray burst and evidence for a black hole at the centre of the Milky Way.[5][6] In 2004, the VLT allowed astronomers to obtain the first picture of an extrasolar planet (2M1207b) orbiting a brown dwarf 173 light-years away.[7] The High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) instrument installed in another ESO telescope led to the discovery of extrasolar planets, including Gliese 581 c—one of the smallest planets seen outside the solar system.[8]

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التاريخ

ESO golden-anniversary celebrants[9]
المديرون العموم للـ ESO
Otto Heckmann 1962–1969
Adriaan Blaauw 1970–1974
Lodewijk Woltjer 1975–1987
Harry van der Laan 1988–1992
Riccardo Giacconi 1993–1999
Catherine Cesarsky 1999–2007
Tim de Zeeuw 2007–present
المصدر: www.eso.org, about ESO[10]
ESO headquarters in Garching, Germany
Architect’s rendering of ESO headquarters extension. Visualized as a low, curved glass building
Architect’s rendering of ESO headquarters extension[11]
Aerial view of large, landscaped complex of ESO's headquarter buildings in Garching, Germany
A Bird’s-eye View of ESO headquarters


الدول الأعضاء

البلد تاريخ الانضمام[12]
Flag of Belgium.svg بلجيكا 1962
Flag of Germany.svg ألمانيا 1962
Flag of France.svg فرنسا 1962
Flag of the Netherlands.svg هولندا 1962
Flag of Sweden.svg السويد 1962
Flag of Denmark.svg دانمارك 1967
Flag of Switzerland.svg سويسرا 1981
Flag of Italy.svg إيطاليا 24 مايو 1982
البرتغال البرتغال 27 يونيو 2000
Flag of the United Kingdom.png المملكة المتحدة 8 July 2002
Flag of Finland.svg فنلندا 1 يوليو 2004
Flag of Spain.svg إسپانيا 1 July 2006
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg التشيك 1 يناير 2007
Flag of Austria.svg نمسا 1 يوليو 2008
Flag of Brazil.svg البرازيل 29 ديسمبر 2010 (لم يتم بعد)
Flag of Poland.svg بولندا 28 أكتوبر 2014
الدول الأعضاء في ESO


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مواقع الرصد التشيلية

ESO facilities in Santiago de Chile and Fernando Comerón, ESO's Representative in Chile.[13][14]
المرصد الجنوبي الأوروپي is located in تشيلي
Chajnantor (1999)
Chajnantor (1999)
Paranal (1998)
Paranal (1998)
E-ELT (2024)
E-ELT (2024)
La Silla (1964)
La Silla (1964)
Bolivia
Argentina
Chile
Map of Chile with ESO's four observatories
تلسكوبات ESO
الاسم المختصر Size النوع الموقع السنة
 ESO 3.6 m telescope hosting HARPS ESO 3.6m 3.57 m optical and infrared La Silla 1977
 MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope MPG 2.20 m optical and infrared La Silla 1984
 New Technology Telescope NTT 3.58 m optical and infrared La Silla 1989
 Very Large Telescope VLT 4 × 8.2 m
4 × 1.8 m
optical to mid-infrared, array Paranal 1998
 Atacama Pathfinder Experiment APEX 12 m millimetre-/submillimetre-wavelength Chajnantor 2005
 Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy VISTA 4.1 m near-infrared, survey Paranal 2009
 VLT Survey Telescope VST 2.6 m optical, survey Paranal 2011
 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array[A] ALMA 50 × 12 m
12 × 7 m
4 × 12 m[15]
millimetre-/submillimetre-wavelength
interferometer array
Chajnantor 2011
 European Extremely Large Telescope E-ELT 39.3 m optical to mid-infrared Cerro Armazones[16] 2024
A ALMA is a partnership among Europe, the United States, Canada, East Asia and the Republic of Chile.
 • Additional ESO research facilities are located in Santiago, Chile and include a library, computing resources and programmes for visiting scientists.[17]
 • ESO also maintains close ties with other observatories and universities throughout the country.[18][19]
 • Source: ESO – Telescopes and Instrumentation[20]


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لا سيا

مقال رئيسي: مرصد لا سيا
La Silla, Chile – A cluster of telescopes at 2,400 metres altitude


ESO 3.6-metre telescope

مقال رئيسي: ESO 3.6 m Telescope


MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope

مقال رئيسي: MPG/ESO telescope


التلسكوبات الأخرى

The Euler Telescope and the ESO 3.6-m Telescope (background) have discovered many exoplanets.

La Silla also hosts several national and project telescopes not operated by ESO. Among them are the Swiss Euler Telescope, the Danish National Telescope and the REM, TRAPPIST and TAROT telescopes.[21]

  • The Euler Telescope is a 1.2-metre telescope built and operated by the Geneva Observatory in Switzerland. It is used to conduct high-precision radial velocity measurements primarily used in the search for large extrasolar planets in the southern celestial hemisphere. Its first discovery was a planet orbiting Gliese 86.[22] Other observing programmes focus on variable stars, asteroseismology, gamma-ray bursts, monitoring active galactic nuclei (AGN) and gravitational lenses.[23]
  • The 1.54-metre Danish National Telescope was built by Grubb-Parsons and has been in use at La Silla since 1979. The telescope has an off-axis mount, and the optics are a Ritchey-Chrétien design. Because of the telescope's mount and limited space inside the dome, it has significant pointing restrictions.[24]
قبة التلسكوب الدنماركي بقطر 1.54 متر الذي يعمل في مرصد لا سيا منذ 1979.[25]
  • The Rapid Eye Mount telescope is a small rapid-reaction automatic telescope with a primary 60-centiمتر (24 بوصة) mirror. The telescope, in an altazimuth mount, began operation in October 2002. The primary purpose of the telescope is to follow the afterglow of the GRBs detected by the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission satellite.[21][26]
  • The Belgian TRAPPIST is a joint venture between the University of Liège and Geneva Observatory. The 0.60-metre telescope is specialized in comets, exoplanets, and was one of the few telescopes that observed a stellar occultation of the dwarf planet Eris, revealing that it may be smaller than Pluto.[27]
  • The Quick-action telescope for transient objects, TAROT, is a very fast-moving optical robotic telescope able to observe a gamma-ray burst from its beginning. Satellites detecting GRBs send signals to TAROT, which can provide a sub-arc second position to the astronomical community. Data from the TAROT telescope is also useful in studying the evolution of GRBs, the physics of a fireball and its surrounding material.[28] It is operated from the Haute-Provence Observatory in France.

Paranal

مقال رئيسي: Paranal Observatory

The Paranal Observatory is located atop Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile. Cerro Paranal is a 2,635-متر-high (8,645 قدم) mountain about 120 kiloمترs (390,000 قدم) south of Antofagasta and 12 kiloمترs (39,000 قدم) from the Pacific coast.[29]

The observatory has seven major telescopes operating in visible and infrared light: the four 8.2-متر (27 قدم) telescopes of the Very Large Telescope, the 2.6-متر (8 قدم 6 بوصة) VLT Survey Telescope (VST) and the 4.1-متر (13 قدم) Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy. In addition, there are four 1.8-متر (5 قدم 11 بوصة) auxiliary telescopes forming an array used for interferometric observations.[30] In March 2008, Paranal was the location for several scenes of the 22nd James Bond film, Quantum of Solace.[31][32]

360-degree night panorama from Paranal
A 360-degree panoramic view of the southern night sky from Paranal, with telescopes in foreground


التلسكوب الكبير جداً

مقال رئيسي: Very Large Telescope
Very Large Telescope (VLT). Complex of four large telescopes and several smaller ones.
VLT Laser Guide Star. The orange laser beam from the telescope is used for adaptive optics.

تلسكوبات المسح

Enclosure of British developed VISTA
VST seen in the back between VLT's dome-shaped auxiliary telescopes.

الاكتشافات الكبرى

Astronomical photomontage
ESO top-10 astronomical discoveries
Star seen from a planet, with another planet in background
Planetary system Gliese 581 (artist's impression)
Painting of exploding star
Most-distant gamma-ray burst (artist's impression)


التواصل مع الجمهور

المطبوعات

ESOcast logo: "ESO" in a blue square, with blue radio waves emanating from it
ESOcast is a video podcast series with the latest news and research in astronomy.[34]


معرض فيديوهات

معرض صور

هذه مختارات من قائمة أفضل مائة صورة التقطها ESO.

انظر أيضاً

هناك كتاب ، European Southern Observatory، في معرفة الكتب.


References

  1. ^ "About ESO". 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2015-01-02.
  2. ^ "ALMA website". Retrieved 2011-09-21.
  3. ^ "Welcome to ALMA!". Retrieved 2011-05-25.
  4. ^ "ESO Archive". Retrieved 2011-04-28.
  5. ^ "A gamma-ray burst at a redshift of 8.2". Retrieved 2011-09-21.
  6. ^ Gillessen, S.; Eisenhauer, F.; Trippe, S.; Alexander, T.; et al. (1970). "Monitoring stellar orbits around the Massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center". The Astrophysical Journal. 692 (2): 1075. arXiv:0810.4674. Bibcode:2009ApJ...692.1075G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/692/2/1075.
  7. ^ Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Dumas, C.; Zuckerman, B.; et al. (2004). "A giant planet candidate near a young brown dwarf. Direct VLT/NACO observations using IR wavefront sensing". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 425 (2): L29. arXiv:astro-ph/0409323. Bibcode:2004A&A...425L..29C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200400056.
  8. ^ "The HARPS Home page". Retrieved 2011-09-21.
  9. ^ "Gala Event Celebrates 50 Years of the European Southern Observatory". ESO Press Release. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  10. ^ "Past ESO Directors General". Retrieved 2011-04-29.
  11. ^ "ESO Expands its Headquarters". ESO Press Release. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
  12. ^ http://www.eso.org/public/about-eso/memberstates/
  13. ^ "A Timeless Sanctuary in Santiago — The ESO Guesthouse, Then and Now". ESO Picture of the Week. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
  14. ^ "Fernando Comerón becomes ESO Representative in Chile". ESO. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
  15. ^ Satoru Iguchi; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Vila Vilaró, Baltasar; Saito, Masao; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Kawabe, Ryohei; Tatematsu, Ken'Ichi; Seiichi, Seiichi; et al. (2009). "The Atacama Compact Array (ACA)". Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan. 61: 1–12. Bibcode:2009PASJ...61....1I. doi:10.1093/pasj/61.1.1. Retrieved 2011-04-29.
  16. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة The E-ELT project
  17. ^ "Science in Santiago". Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  18. ^ "Minutes of the ESO Chile Joint Committee" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  19. ^ "Cooperative Projects in Chile". Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  20. ^ "Telescopes and Instrumentation". Retrieved 2011-04-29.
  21. ^ أ ب "National and Project Telescopes". Retrieved 2011-04-29.
  22. ^ "Extrasolar Planet in Double Star System Discovered from La Silla". ESO. 24 November 1998. Retrieved 2011-04-29.
  23. ^ "Southern Sky extrasolar Planet search Programme". Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  24. ^ "The Danish Telescope at La Silla". Retrieved 2011-04-29.
  25. ^ "The Great Dane". Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  26. ^ "Rapid Eye Mount". Retrieved 2011-04-29.
  27. ^ Newscientist.com, Kelly Beatty - Former 'tenth planet' may be smaller than Pluto, November 2010
  28. ^ "TAROT website". Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  29. ^ "Paranal Site Details". Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  30. ^ "Telescopes and Instrumentation". Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  31. ^ "A Giant of Astronomy and a Quantum of Solace". ESO. 25 March 2008. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  32. ^ "IMDB—Quantum of Solace (2008)". Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  33. ^ "Groundbreaking Ceremony for ESO Supernova Planetarium & Visitor Centre". ESO Announcement. European Southern Observatory. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  34. ^ "ESOcast". ESO Videos. ESO. Retrieved 18 June 2012.

Bibliography

  • Shaw, E. N. (1976). "The European Southern Observatory". The Observatory. London: Royal Astronomical Society.
  • Council of Europe (2010). European Yearbook / Annuaire Européen. 58. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. cdxliii. ISBN 9004206795.
  • Lodewijk, Woltjer (2012). Europe's Quest for The Universe. EDP Sciences. ISBN 9782759801671.
  • Schilling, Govert; Christensen, Lars Lindberg (2013). Europe to the Stars: ESO's first 50 years of exploring the southern sky. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9783527671670.

وصلات خارجية


Coordinates: 48°15′36″N 11°40′16″E / 48.26000°N 11.67111°E / 48.26000; 11.67111