الإمبراطورة الأرملة تسي‌شي

(تم التحويل من Empress Dowager Cixi)
الإمبراطورة الأرملة تسي‌شي
慈禧太后
Empress Dowager Cixi
The Ci-Xi Imperial Dowager Empress (5).JPG
الوصية على عرش أسرة چينگ
Regency11 نوفمبر 1861 – 15 نوفمبر 1908
في نفس الوقت مع الامبراطورة الأرملة تسي‌آن (1861–81)
سبقهSushun, Zaiyuan, Duanhua and other 5 officials as regents for تونگ‌ژي الامبراطور
تبعهالإمبراطورة الأرملة لونگ‌يو وZaifeng, Prince Chun كأوصياء على پويي
وُلِد(1835-11-29)29 نوفمبر 1835
توفي15 نوفمبر 1908(1908-11-15) (عن عمر 72 عاماً)
Hall of Graceful Bird, Zhongnanhai, Beijing, Qing Empire
الزوجXianfeng Emperor
الأنجالتونگ‌ژي الامبراطور
الاسم بعد الممات
الموجز: Empress Xiao-Qin Xian 孝欽顯皇后
الكامل: Empress Xiao-Qin Ci-Xi Duan-You Kang-Yi Zhao-Yu Zhuang-Cheng Shou-Gong Qin-Xian Chong-Xi Pei-Tian Xing-Sheng Xian 孝欽慈禧端佑康頤昭豫莊誠壽恭欽獻崇熙配天興聖顯皇后
البيتHouse of Aisin Gioro (by marriage)
الأبYehenara Huizheng
الأمالسيدة فوتسا

الإمبراطورة الأرملة تسي‌شي1، أو الامبراطورة الأرملة تزو-شي Empress Dowager Tzu-hsi (بالصينية: 慈禧太后پن‌ين: Cíxǐ Tàihòu; ويد-جايلز: Tz'u2-hsi3 T'ai4-hou4؛ نطق المندرينية: [tsʰǐɕì tʰâɪ̯ xɤ̂ʊ̯]; بالمانچو: Tsysi taiheo؛ بالإنگليزية: Empress Dowager Cixi؛ عاشت 29 نوفمبر 183515 نوفمبر 1908)، من عشيرة يهى‌نارا المانچو، كانت إمرأة قوية ذات شعبية وقد سيطرت بفعالية وإن بشكل غير رسمي على أسرة چينگ المانشو في الصين لمدة 47 عاماً، من 1861 حتى وفاتها في 1908.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

السنوات المبكرة

پورتريه مبكر of the old Dowager Consort Kangci, foster mother of Emperor Xianfeng. She hosted the selection of Xianfeng's consorts in 1851, in which Cixi participated as a potential candidate. She supervised the entire process while the emperor himself was not present. Thus, she made every decision on behalf of the emperor. It is widely believed that Cixi made a favourable impression to her on that occasion.
پورتريه of two imperial consorts within the harem of Emperor Xianfeng. Cixi entered Xianfeng's harem as a lowly concubine, but gave birth to his only male heir.
پورتريه of Empress Dowager Ci'an (co-regent with Cixi), with whom Cixi staged the Xinyou Coup. Before the death of Xianfeng, Ci'an was his empress consort while Cixi was his concubine. This fact gave Ci'an precedence over Cixi in all aspects of court life, even though they were both created empress dowagers.
The Pavilion of Beautiful Scenery, inside which Cixi gave birth to the future تونگ‌ژي الامبراطور.


انقلاب شين‌يو: الاطاحة بـ سوشون

وراء الأستار

عصر حديث

انتصار تاي‌پنگ والأمير گونگ

Photograph of Prince Gong, Cixi's crucial ally during the Xinyou Coup. He was generously rewarded by Cixi for his help during her most difficult times, but was eventually eliminated from office by Cixi for his overly strong ambitions.
Photograph of Princess Rongshou (center seated), daughter of Prince Gong. As a way to show gratitude to the Prince, Cixi adopted his daughter, and elevated her to the rank of Kurun Princess (the highest rank for imperial princesses). The Princess remained a lifelong friend of Cixi, and earned Cixi's respect and reverence for her forthrightness and sincerity. She became one of the few people whose remarks were taken seriously into account by Cixi.


زواج تونگ‌ژي

پورتريه لإمبراطورة تونگ‌ژي ، whom was chosen against Cixi's will. The Empress never managed to get along with Cixi, and was persecuted both mentally and physically until her death in 1875. When Beijing was occupied by Eight-Power Allied Forces in 1900, the Empress's mother and siblings fell victims to public gang rape by a huge number of foreign soldiers. That resulted in the immediate mass suicide of her entire family.
Ceremonial headdress likely worn by Cixi. The small phoenixes emerging from the surface represent the empress. [1] The Walters Art Museum.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

مثالب تونگ‌ژي في الحكم

پورتريه للامبراطور تونگ‌ژي (حرفياً Joined Reign) doing his coursework. Cixi's high expectations on him caused his strong distaste for learning, and it turned out that the Emperor was unsuitable for ruling on his own.


الوصاية على الامبراطور گوانگ‌شو

التحديات الجديدة

پورتريه رسمي للامبراطور گوانگ‌شو (حرفيا الخلافة المجيدة)
القرينة ژن، المحظية المفضلة لدى گوانگ‌شو، was initially liked but eventually hated by Cixi. Cixi admired the consort's talents and personality, but the consort's unfavourable political opinions marred her relationship with Cixi. She was put to death by Cixi in 1900.
الامبراطورة الأرملة (وسط المقدمة) تقف مع مساعدات البلاط وإمبراطورة گوانگ‌شو (الثانية من اليسار)، التي كانت في نفس الوقت ابنة أختها. وقد دبرت زواج گوانگ‌شو ضد رغبته، مما نتج عنه فشل الامبراطور في انجاب وريث للعرش.
The Empress Dowager is shown sitting inside a courtyard tent built to resemble her bedroom chamber, the Hall of Happiness and Longevity of the Summer Palace. Her actual room was too dark for photographs.
الامبراطورة الأرملة rides a sedan under the accompany of senior palace eunuches. The building in the background is still under construction, possibly due to damages caused by foreign troops that occupied the palace a few years ago.
The Empress Dowager enjoys snow on a cold winter day.
الامبراطورة الأرملة strolls with the fourth daughter of Prince Qing.
The Empress Dowager holds hands with the fourth daughter of Prince Qing (to her left) and chief palace eunuch Li Lianying (to her right). The lady standing in the background is Consort Jin (later Dowager Consort Duankang).


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ارتقاء الامبراطور گوانگ‌شو العرش

اصلاح المائة يوم

انتفاضة الملاكمين واصلاحات چنگ المتأخرة

الوفاة ومقر الدفن النهائي

Entrance to the burial chamber in Cixi's tomb
Memorial tower of the tomb of Empress Dowager Cixi

العائلة

الأشقاء وأنجالهم

Cixi's younger sister Yehenara Wanzhen (left) was the principal wife of Prince Chun, وأنجبت الامبراطور گوانگ‌شو.
    • 1st younger sister: Yehenara Wanzhen (葉赫那拉·婉貞) (13 September 1841 – 19 June 1896), married Yixuan, Prince Chun
      • 1st son: Zairong (載瀚) (1 February 1865 – 9 December 1866)
      • 2nd son: Zaitian (載湉) (14 August 1871 – 14 November 1908), became the گوانگ‌شو الامبراطور
      • 3rd son: unnamed (13 February 1875 – 14 February 1875)
      • 4th son: Zaiguang (載洸) (28 November 1880 – 18 May 1884)
    • 2nd younger sister: Lady Yehenara (葉赫那拉氏), married Yixun (奕勛) (second younger brother of Yikuang, Prince Qing)
    • 1st younger brother: Yehenara Zhaoxiang (葉赫那拉·照祥)
      • Son: Yehenara Deshan (葉赫那拉·德善)
    • 2nd younger brother: Yehenara Guixiang (葉赫那拉·桂祥)
      • 1st daughter: Yehenara Jingrong (葉赫那拉·靜榮), married Zaize, Duke of Zhen in 1894
      • 2nd daughter: Yehenara Jingfen (葉赫那拉·靜芬) (1868 – 22 February 1913), married her first cousin, the گوانگ‌شو الامبراطور on 26 February 1889 and became Empress Dowager Longyu (known posthumously as Empress Xiao Ding Jing)
      • 3rd daughter: Yehenara Jingfang (葉赫那拉·靜芳), married Zaiyi
        • Son: Pujun (溥儁) (1885–1942)
          • 1st son: Yuwei (毓巍) (September 1908 – May 1998)
            • 1st son: Henglu (恆祿)
            • 2nd son: Hengyu (恆玉)
            • 3rd son: Hengjun (恆均)
              • Son: Luowei (羅偉)
          • 2nd son: Yuling (毓嶺)
      • 1st son: Yehenara Deheng (葉赫那拉·德恒), courtesy name Jianting (健亭)
        • 1st daughter: Yehenara Shumin (葉赫那拉·淑敏)
        • 2nd daughter: Yehenara Shuqin (葉赫那拉·淑琴)
        • Son: Yehenara Enxian (葉赫那拉·恩賢)
      • 2nd son: Yehenara Deqi (葉赫那拉·德祺), courtesy name Shouzhi (壽芝)
        • 1st daughter: Yehenara Xixian (葉赫那拉·希賢)
        • 2nd daughter: Yehenara Xiyan (葉赫那拉·希嬿)
        • 1st son: Yehenara Enyin (葉赫那拉·恩印)
        • 2nd son: Yehenara Enxian (葉赫那拉·恩顯)
        • 3rd son: Yehenara Enmin [ك‍] (葉赫那拉·恩民)
        • 4th son: Yehenara Enzhi (葉赫那拉·恩植)
    • 3rd younger brother: Yehenara Fuxiang (葉赫那拉·福祥)
      • Son: Yehenara Dekui (葉赫那拉·德奎), courtesy name Wenbo (文伯)
        • 1st daughter: Yehenara Enhua (葉赫那拉·恩華)
        • 2nd daughter: Yehenara Enxiu (葉赫那拉·恩秀)
        • 1st son: Yehenara Enquan (葉赫那拉·恩銓)
        • 2nd son: Yehenara Enhui (葉赫那拉·恩輝)
        • 3rd son: Yehenara Enyao (葉赫那拉·恩耀)
        • 4th son: Yehenara Enguang (葉赫那拉·恩光)

أسماء الإمبراطورة الأرملة تسي‌شي

The plaque hanging above Cixi is inscribed with her title in full, literally translated as "The Current Holy Mother Empress Dowager of the Great Qing Empire, Cixi (kind and auspicious) Duanyou (upright and blessed) Kangyi (healthy and well-maintained) Zhaoyu (clear and pleasant) Zhuangcheng (solemn and sincere) Shougong (long-living and respectful) Qinxian (royal and sacrificial) Chongxi (magnanimous and prosperous).
The Empress Dowager was a devoted Buddhist and seized every opportunity to dress up as Avalokiteśvara, the Goddess of Mercy. This photograph shows her in her Buddhist outfit sitting on a barge in the Kunming Lake of the Summer Palace. The white smoke forms the character for longevity, and on top of the smoke was her Buddhist name "Guangrenzi" (literally Universal Benevolence).


آراء تاريخية

One of the historical oil paintings by Western artists depicting Empress Dowager Cixi
Katharine Carl's oil painting of Cixi


التعاقب

الملكية الصينية
سبقه
Empress Xiaojingcheng
Empress Dowager of China
1861–1908
concurrently with Empress Dowager Ci'an:
1861–1881
تبعه
Empress Dowager Longyu

انظر أيضاً

في الثقافة الشعبية

  • Pearl S. Buck's novel Imperial Woman chronicles the life of the Empress Dowager from the time of her selection as a concubine until near to her death. Empress Dowager Cixi is portrayed as a stern, motivated woman who stands to the old ways of life and government and resists the changes brought by westerners. Empress Dowager Cixi's actions on behalf of the two Emperors that she raised and her own actions are all accounted for and rationalized as being for the good of her people and her country.
  • The 1968 novel Wij Tz'e Hsi Keizerin Van China (We, Tz'e Hsi, Empress of China) by Dutch author Johan Fabricius is a fictional diary of the Empress.
  • The China Central Television production Towards the Republic portrayed Empress Dowager Cixi as a capable ruler, albeit not entirely positive, for the first time in the history of Mainland Chinese television, although it also clearly demonstrated her political views as very conservative.

الهامش

  1. ^ "Ceremonial Headdress". The Walters Art Museum.

للاستزادة

  • Chung, Sue Fawn (1979). "The Much Maligned Empress Dowager: A Revisionist Study of the Empress Dowager Tz'u-Hsi (1835–1908)". Modern Asian Studies. 13 (2): 177–196.
  • Hummel, Arthur William, ed. (1943). Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644–1912). 2 vols. Washington: United States Government Printing Office.
  • Warner, Marina (1972). The Dragon Empress: Life and Times of Tz'u-hsi 1835–1908. Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
  • Hayter-Menzies, Grant (2008). Imperial Masquerade: The Legend of Princess Der Ling. Hong Kong University Press.
  • 雷家聖(Lei Chiasheng) (2004). 《力挽狂瀾-戊戌政變新探》,台北:萬卷樓. ISBN 957-739-507-4.

وصلات خارجية

اقرأ نصاً ذا علاقة في

Imperial Decree on Day Nineteen of May(lunar calendar)


Wikiquote-logo.svg اقرأ اقتباسات ذات علاقة بالإمبراطورة الأرملة تسي‌شي، في معرفة الاقتباس.

قالب:Qing regents