آق‌طاي

(تم التحويل من Aktau)
آق‌طاي

Aqtaý, Ақтау قالب:Kk icon
Актау, Aktau (بالروسية)

Aktau
مدينة
مع عقارب الساعة من أعلى: Panoramic view of Aktau and the sea; Aktau Mosque; Rocky seacoast of Caspian Sea; statue of Shevchenko monument; MiG jet monument; Ship that resembles trading monument; Great Patriotic War monument with eternal flame.
مع عقارب الساعة من أعلى: Panoramic view of Aktau and the sea; Aktau Mosque; Rocky seacoast of Caspian Sea; statue of Shevchenko monument; MiG jet monument; Ship that resembles trading monument; Great Patriotic War monument with eternal flame.
Official seal of آق‌طاي
Seal
آق‌طاي is located in قزخستان
آق‌طاي
آق‌طاي
آق‌طاي is located in آسيا
آق‌طاي
آق‌طاي
Location in Kazakhstan
الإحداثيات: 43°39′N 51°09′E / 43.650°N 51.150°E / 43.650; 51.150Coordinates: 43°39′N 51°09′E / 43.650°N 51.150°E / 43.650; 51.150
البلدقزخستان
المنطقةMangystau Region
Founded1958
الحكم
 • Akim (mayor)Yedil Terekbayuly Zhanburshin
المساحة
 • الإجمالية77 كم² (30 ميل²)
الارتفاع-8 m (−26 ft)
التعداد(2016)[1]
 • الإجمالي190٬000
 • الكثافة2٬500/km2 (6٬400/sq mi)
منطقة التوقيتUTC+5 (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+5)
Postal code130000
مفتاح الهاتف+7 7292
تسجيل السيارة12, R
ClimateBWk
الموقع الإلكترونيaktau.gov.kz

آق‌طاي أو أكتاو (بالقزخية: Ақтау) هي مدينة في قزخستان، تقع على الساحل الشرقي لبحر قزوين. واسمها الحالي يعني "الجبل الأبيض" باللغة القزخية، وربما يكون ذلك تعبيراً عن جروفها المطلة على القزوين. ومن سنة 1964 حتى 1991 كانت المدينة تُعرف بإسم Shevchenko (بالروسية: Шевченко, بالقزخية: S'evc'enko). Its former name was given due to the eponymous Ukrainian poet's period of exile in the area.[2] It is located on the Mangyshlak Peninsula and is the capital of Mangystau Region.

Aktau is known for its unique block address system. Almost no streets in Aktau have names; instead, addresses generally consist of three numbers: the district number (also known as micro-region/micro-district/block), the building number, and the apartment number. This is because Aktau was originally planned as a camp for the workers of the oil industry.[3]

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التاريخ

المنطقة التي تشغلها اليوم آق‌طاي كان يسكنها يوماً قبائل قديمة من السكوذيين. Archeological finds in the area include old settlements and utensils. The current territory of Mangystau hosted a spur route of the northern silk road, which resulted in the founding of several Sufi shrines in Aktau's vicinity. However, the area had very little population prior to Soviet times and no cities of any relevancy, almost certainly due to the scarcity of fresh water.

In 1958, uranium prospectors settled the site of modern Aktau, naming the settlement Melovoye (Меловое) after the bay on which it stood.[4] After the development of the uranium deposits was started, the settlement was closed and renamed Guryev-20 (Гурьев-20).[4] In 1963, its closed status was lifted, town status was granted,[بحاجة لمصدر] and the name was changed to Aktau.[5] However, in 1964 it was given yet another name, Shevchenko (Шевченко), to honor the Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko who spent 1850–1857 in political exile in Novopetrovskoye, about 100 kiloمترs (330,000 ft) to the northwest.[5] This Ukrainian name for the city may have been granted due to the large number of Ukrainian workers who settled in the city. Their descendants are easily identifiable to this day by surnames ending in '-enko'. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and Kazakhstan gaining independence, the name Aktau was restored in 1991, but the city's airport still retains SCO as its IATA code.[5]



المناخ والعطلات

Aktau experiences a cold desert climate (Köppen BWk), with dry summers and mild winters, with a mean January temperature of +0.5 °م (32.9 °ف), and a mean July temperature of +25.55 °م (77.99 °ف). It is notable that most of the city of Aktau lies below sea level in the Caspian Depression and is proximate to the lowest point in Kazakhstan and the former Soviet Union at Karagiye.

The beach season lasts from May to September, with an average sea temperature of +21 °م (70 °ف). Aktau has both rocky hills and sandy beaches along the seashore. There are several modern resorts on the coast to the south of the city. The beaches of the Caspian shore are popular in the summer, due to the hot climate of the season. Tourists come mainly from other parts of Kazakhstan. The city has a variety of local hotels and western chains of Renaissance and Holiday Inn.

بيانات مناخ آق‌طاي
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 1
(34)
2
(36)
6
(43)
14
(57)
22
(72)
26
(79)
29
(84)
28
(82)
23
(73)
16
(61)
9
(48)
3
(37)
15
(59)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) -2
(28)
-2
(28)
1
(34)
7
(45)
15
(59)
19
(66)
22
(72)
21
(70)
16
(61)
9
(48)
3
(37)
0
(32)
9
(48)
هطول mm (inches) 8
(0.31)
9
(0.35)
15
(0.59)
17
(0.67)
20
(0.79)
16
(0.63)
16
(0.63)
16
(0.63)
17
(0.67)
16
(0.63)
16
(0.63)
16
(0.63)
182
(7٫17)
Source: Svali.ru[6]

المشاهد

منظر السهوب المحيطة بآق‌طاي.

The main attraction in the city remains the Caspian Sea with its long side walks and beaches. Other sights include:

  • World War II Eternal Flame Memorial in a shape reminiscent of a traditional yurt
  • MiG Monument at the Victory Mall
  • Regional Studies and History Museum
  • The Drama Theatre
  • Yntymak Square
  • Monuments of Famous people of the past: Kashagan, Zhalau Mynbayev and Taras Shevchenko
Panorama of Night Aktau
Shevchenko monument in Aktau
View of the seaside


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الكبسولة الزمنية

In 1967 the people of Aktau erected a Time capsule to send a message to future generations of the Mangyshlak Peninsula, including names of people who helped to build the town in the desert. The letter was put in a metallic cylinder in a triangular marble urn. It was to be opened in November 2017.[3] The capsule is located in District 2, opposite the 'Kazakhstan Trade Center.'

الصناعة

Major industry of the city remains hydrocarbon production as one of the biggest producing regions of the country. In addition to its strategic location as the main seaport, Aktau attracted the biggest players of the oil service industry:

مشروع مدينة آق‌طاي

مدخل المدينة

On September 11, 2007, President Nursultan Nazarbayev started the Aktau city project in order to develop tourism and attract investment.[8] A totally new city was to have been built to the north-west of the current city with 4 million square meters of new residential and business buildings. The architecture style would have been derived from UAE's construction experience under the patronage of Sheikh Abdullah ibn Zaid Al Nahayan. In August 2013, the project was called off.[9]

البلدات التوأم والمدن الشقيقة

آق‌طاي متوأمة مع:


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الهامش

المراجع
  1. ^ "Results Of The 2009 National Population Census Of The Republic Of Kazakhstan Analytical Report" (PDF). The Agency On Statistics Of The Republic of Kazakhstan.
  2. ^ "Aktau city, Kazakhstan facts, history, attractions, photos". About Kazakhstan. Retrieved 2015-12-29.
  3. ^ أ ب "Aktau: Years, people, memories". Ogni. October 13, 2011.
  4. ^ أ ب Пионеры Запада (in الروسية). Np.kz. February 28, 2003. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
  5. ^ أ ب ت Pospelov, p. 25
  6. ^ "Svali.ru" (in Russian). Retrieved May 7, 2012.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  7. ^ "Tenaris to build new facility". Tenaris. July 9, 2014.
  8. ^ "Ambitious Aktau-City project scrapped". Ақ Жайық (in الروسية). Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  9. ^ Lada.KZ. "Айдарбаев: Актау-сити не будет". lada.kz. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  10. ^ "Goroda Pobratimyi". Aktau.gov.
المصادر
  • Е. М. Поспелов (Ye. M. Pospelov). "Имена городов: вчера и сегодня (1917–1992). Топонимический словарь." (City Names: Yesterday and Today (1917–1992). Toponymic Dictionary." Москва, "Русские словари", 1993.

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Mangystau Region