ARA Libertad (Q-2)

Q2ARALibertad.jpg
Libertad entering Dársena Norte, Buenos Aires
التاريخ
Argentina
الاسم: Libertad
المالك:  الأرجنتين
أمر بإنشائها: 13 November 1953 (from a 1946 project)[1]
الباني: Río Santiago Shipyard, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina
وُضِعت: 11 December 1953[1]
أُطلِقت: 30 May 1956[1]
رُخـِّصت: 28 May 1963[1]
الوضع: Commissioned, in active service
السمات العامة
النوع: Steel hulled, full-rigged class "A"[2][3] tall ship
الازاحة: 3,765 metric tonnes[4]
الطول: 103.75 م (340.4 قدم)[4] (hull 91.7 meters)
العارضة: 14.31 م (46.9 قدم)[4]
الغاطس: 6.60 م (21.7 قدم)[4]
الدفع:

Pre mlu: 2 × Sulzer diesel engines[4]

Post mlu: 2 × MAN diesel engines B&W mod. 6L23/30-D, each with 6 inline cylinders and 960 kW at 900 rpm[5]
السرعة:

Pre mlu: 13.5 عقدةs (25.0 كم/س)[4] (engine power only)

Post mlu: 13.73 عقدةs (25.43 كم/س)[5] (engine power only)
المدى: 12,000 ميل بحريs (22,000 kم) at 8 عقدةs (15 كم/س)[4] (engine power only)
المرافقون: 24 officers, 187 crewmen, as well as 150 cadets[4]
التسليح: 4 47 mm QF 3 pounder Hotchkiss cannons[6]

ARA Libertad (Q-2) is a steel hulled, full rigged, class "A"[2][3] sailing ship which serves as a school vessel in the Argentine Navy. One of the largest[7] and fastest tall ships in the world,[8][9] holder of several speed records,[3] she was designed and built in the 1950s by the Río Santiago Shipyard, Ensenada, Argentina.[4] Her maiden voyage was in 1961, and she continues to be a training ship with yearly instruction trips for the graduating naval cadets as well as a traveling goodwill ambassador,[8][10] having covered more than 800,000 ميل بحريs (1,500,000 kم) across all seas, visited about 500 ports in more than 60 countries,[11] and trained more than 11,000 navy graduates.[5]

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حادثة غانا

In early October 2012 the vessel was impounded in the port of تما، غانا, by a court ruling in favour of NML Capital, a subsidiary of Cayman Islands hedge fund Elliott Management Corporation, which claimed that it was owed US$370m (£233m) as a consequence of Argentina's debt defaults of 2002,[12] and was seeking payment of $20m for release of the vessel.[13] NML was not originally a creditor, but bought the debt for "pennies on the dollar" according to Forbes.[14] Argentina's foreign ministry condemned the move, claiming it as "a stunt" pulled by "vulture funds, who are not subject to the laws of any jurisdiction".[15][16][17]

On 25 October 2012 most of the ship's crew returned to Argentina, leaving the captain and 43 crew members with the ship in Ghana.[18]

On 15 December 2012 the UN International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea ruled unanimously that the ship had immunity as a military vessel, and ordered that "Ghana should forthwith and unconditionally release the frigate ARA Libertad", and report to the Tribunal on compliance by 22 December.[12][19] Libertad was released from Tema on 19 December. She arrived on 9 January 2013 to the port of Mar del Plata, where the ship got an enthusiastic homecoming.[20] Following the International Tribunal ruling, the Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority sued NML Capital for damages of least US$7.6 million related to the Libertad's impoundment.[21] The Supreme Court of Ghana ruled in June 2013 that the 77-day impoundment was "unjustified, and could have endangered the security of Ghana by triggering a diplomatic conflict."[22]


See also

المراجع

Citations

  1. ^ أ ب ت ث "Libertad en el Mar. El sitio web de la Fragata Libertad. 200 Años Bicentenario Argentino" (in Spanish). Argentine Navy.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  2. ^ أ ب "STI measurement form" (PDF). Class "A" denotes any sailing vessel over 40 meters in length and all square-rigged vessels
  3. ^ أ ب ت "Three Masted Tall Ships". Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. Archived from the original on 25 September 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  4. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ "Armada Argentina. Buque Escuela" (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Estado Mayor General de la Armada.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  5. ^ أ ب ت "Modernización Fragata ARA Libertad" (PDF) (in Spanish and English and Portuguese). Pan American Institute of Naval Engineering.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  6. ^ Stephen Saunders (1 July 2005). "Jane's Fighting Ships 2005-2006". Jane's Information Group. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  7. ^ "The Maritime Museum of the Atlantic's Tall Ship Top Ten List". Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  8. ^ أ ب "Sail Boston 2009". Sail Boston.
  9. ^ "A Salute to the Fourth; Pride of Many Nations, in Oak, Pine, Iron and Steel". New York Times. 30 June 2000.
  10. ^ Luis Martino, Argentina’s Charge D’Affaires to Guyana. "‘Libertad’ comes a-calling, bearing message of peace, friendship" (16 July 2011).
  11. ^ "Argentine Navy sail ship visiting Manila". The Manila Times. 2 July 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  12. ^ أ ب "Ghana told to free Argentine ship Libertad by UN court". BBC News. 15 December 2012.
  13. ^ "Argentina takes ship dispute with Ghana to UN court". BBC News. 14 November 2012.
  14. ^ Agustino Fontevecchia (5 October 2012). "The Real Story Of How A Hedge Fund Detained A Vessel In Ghana And Even Went For Argentina's 'Air Force One". Forbes. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  15. ^ "Argentina ship in Ghana seized over loans default". BBC News. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  16. ^ Tim FernHolz (4 October 2012). "Some Hedge Funds Only Seem Like Pirates—This One Actually Stole a Ship". The Atlantic.
  17. ^ "El millonario estadounidense que cazó el barco es asesor de Romney" (in Spanish). El País International. 20 October 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2012.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  18. ^ "Seized ship crew back in Argentina from Ghana". BBC News. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  19. ^ "Order: The "ARA Libertad" Case" (PDF). International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, Hamburg. 15 December 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  20. ^ Daniel Schweimler (10 January 2013). "Argentine naval frigate returns home". Financial Times.
  21. ^ "Giro: ahora Ghana quiere hacer juicio al fondo buitre". Ámbito Financiero. December 21, 2012.
  22. ^ "La Corte Suprema de Ghana consideró que la retención de la Fragata fue injusta". InfoNews. June 20, 2013.

Bibliography

  • Amendolara Bourdette, Ignacio. Guía de los buques de la Armada Argentina 2005-2006 (in Spanish and English). IPN Editores. ISBN 987-43-9400-5.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Argentine Military