گريگوار كايي‌باندا

Grégoire Kayibanda
Gregoire Kayibanda.png
رئيس رواندا الأول
في المنصب
1 يوليو 1962 – 5 يوليو 1973
خلفه جوڤينال هابياريمانا
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد (1924-05-01)مايو 1, 1924
تارى، رواندا
توفي ديسمبر 15, 1976(1976-12-15) (عن عمر 52 عاماً)
غير معروف
القومية رواندي
الحزب پارمى‌هوتو (حزب حركة عتق الهوتو)


گريگوار كايي‌باندا Grégoire Kayibanda (عاش 1 مايو 1924 – 15 ديسمبر 1976) كان أول وثاني رئيس رواندا. He led Rwanda's struggle for independence from Belgium, and replaced the Tutsi monarchy with a republican form of government. He asserted Hutu majority power.

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النشأة والتعليم

Grégoire Kayibanda was born in Tare, Rwanda. He came from the south of the country and was an ethnic Hutu.


الخلفية

The Hutu majority had long been resentful of power held by the Tutsi minority. They were encouraged by Hutu advocates in the Catholic Church, and by Christian Belgians (who were increasingly influential in the Congo). The United Nations mandates, the Tutsi elite class, and the Belgian colonists contributed to the growing social and political unrest. Gregoire Kayibanda, an ethnic Hutu, led the Hutu "emancipation" movement. He founded the political party پارمى‌هوتو (Parti du Mouvement de l'Emancipation Hutu; Hutu Emancipation Movement Party)، وكتب "بيان باهوتو" في 1957.

In reaction, in 1959 Tutsis founded the UNAR party, made up of those who desired immediate independence for Ruanda-Urundi based on the existing Tutsi monarchy. This group also became quickly militarized. Skirmishes began between UNAR وجماعات پارمى‌هوتو. Kayibanda's successful campaign brought the majority Hutu to power for the first time in Rwanda.

In 1961 the Rwandan monarchy was dissolved, and Kayibanda was elected president on October 26.[1] Over the next three years, Kayibanda increased his power step by step. وبحلول 1965، كان پارمى‌هوتو هو الحزب الشرعي الوحيد في البلد. At elections held that year, Kayibanda appeared alone on the ballot for president. He was reelected in 1969, again as the only candidate. وفي كل من الانتخابات، a single list of Parmehutu candidates was returned to the legislature. The 1962 constitution of Rwanda, enacted by Kayibanda's regime, proscribed communist activities and propaganda.[2]

Kayibanda pursued a pro-Western, anticommunist foreign policy.[3] Rwanda enjoyed cordial relations with the تايوان، while strongly criticizing the سياسات جمهورية الصين الشعبية في أفريقيا.[4] Kayibanda's government adopted a generally neutral stance تجاه الصراع العربي الإسرائيلي وحرب ڤيتنام.[4]

في 5 يوليو 1973، قام وزير الدفاع الجنرال جوڤينال هابياريمانا بالإطاحة بكايي‌باندا في انقلاب عسكري. Although described as bloodless, as a result of the coup, an estimated 55 شخص، mostly officials, lawyers or businessmen close to the previous regime, were reportedly executed. The families of these people were given sums of money to pay for their silence. احتجزت النظام الجديد كايي‌باندا وزوجته في مكان سري (rumored to be a house near Kabgayi), where they were reportedly starved to death.[5]

الهامش

  1. ^ Emmanuel Kwaku Akyeampong; Henry Louis Gates; Mr. Steven J. Niven (2 February 2012). Dictionary of African Biography. Oxford University Press. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-0-19-538207-5.
  2. ^ Constitution of Rwanda. November 24, 1962. Art. 39: “All communist activity and propaganda are forbidden.”
  3. ^ Nyrop, 1969, p. 89.
  4. ^ أ ب Nyrop, 1969, p. 91
  5. ^ "Mission d'information sur le Rwanda" (in French). Celui-ci s’était construit sur la destruction de la Première République. Entre 1974 et 1977, 56 personnes, pour la plupart d’anciens dirigeants de la Première République, avaient été assassinés par les services de la sécurité. Le premier Président rwandais, Grégoire Kayibanda, était mort en détention en 1976, probablement de faim.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)

المصادر

مناصب سياسية
سبقه
دومينيك مبونيوموتوا
رئيس رواندا
26 أكتوبر 1961 – 5 يوليو 1973
تبعه
جوڤينال هابياريمانا

قالب:RwandaPMs

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