ڤلورا

(تم التحويل من ڤلوره)
Vlorë
مدينة
من أعلى لأسفل، يسار إلى يمين: مقر مجلس المدينة، ڤلورا في الليل، ساحل ڤلورا، الكنيسة الكاثوليكية القديمة، الكهوف البحرية، مسجد مرادية
من أعلى لأسفل، يسار إلى يمين: مقر مجلس المدينة، ڤلورا في الليل، ساحل ڤلورا، الكنيسة الكاثوليكية القديمة، الكهوف البحرية، مسجد مرادية
Coat of arms of Vlorë
Coat of arms
Vlorë is located in ألبانيا
Vlorë
Vlorë
الإحداثيات: 40°27.9′N 19°29.1′E / 40.4650°N 19.4850°E / 40.4650; 19.4850
البلد  ألبانيا
المقاطعة ڤلورا
المنطقة ڤلورا
بلديات 6
تأسست 627 ق.م.
الحكم
 • العمدة Shpëtim Gjika (الاشتراكي)
التعداد(2011)
 • الإجمالي 79٬621
منطقة التوقيت Central European Time (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+1)
 • الصيفي CEST (UTC+2)
مفتاح الهاتف 033
تسجيل السيارة VL
الموقع الإلكتروني vlora.gov.al

ڤلورا Vlorë هي ثاني أكبر مدن ألبانيا، بعد دوريس. The population at the 2011 census was 79,621.[1] It is the city where the Albanian Declaration of Independence was proclaimed on November 28, 1912. Vlorë was for a brief time the Capital of Albania.

Founded as an ancient Greek colony in the 6th century BC by the name of Aulon and continuously inhabited for about 26 centuries, Vlorë is home to the ميناء ڤلورا وجامعة ڤلورا as the most important economical and cultural city of southwestern Albania.

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أصل الاسم

The modern name for the city is the Albanian form Vlorë or Vlora، وكلاهما يُنطق [ˈvlɔɾə], while in the Gheg dialect it is known as Vlonë.[2] Vlorë was created in antiquity as a مستعمرة يونانية في أرض إليريا. Its first name was Aulón (باليونانية: Αυλών, also the name in modern Katharevousa), meaning "valley" and possibly a translation of another indigenous name.[3] The medieval and modern Greek name is Αυλώνας /av'lonas/, accusative Αυλώνα /av'lona/, and is the source of the Italian name Valona (also used in other languages) and of the obsolete English Avlona.[4][5] During the Ottoman era, the Turkish Avlonya was also used.[6]


الجغرافيا

صورة جوية لـڤلورا، باتجاه الجنوب.

The city is located in Southern Albania and is the municipal seat of مقاطعة ڤلورا.


التاريخ

ڤلورا في 1512
ڤلورا في 1573


The Serbian Empire captured Vlorë, or Valona, as it was also called, in 1345 and formed the seat of an independent principality until it was captured by the Ottoman Empire in 1417. Under Ottoman rule, it became a sanjak centre in إيالة روملي as "Avlonya"; and after coming under Venetian possession in 1690, the city was restored to the Turks in 1691, becoming a قضاء of the sanjak of Berat in the ولاية يانينا. The city had about 10,000 inhabitants; there was a Catholic parish, which belonged to the Archdiocese of Durrës. In the 16th century, it was an important center for Sephardic Jewish refugees from Spain and Portugal.

In 1851 it suffered severely from an earthquake.[بحاجة لمصدر]

Ismail Qemali declared Albania's independence in Vlorë on November 28, 1912, during the First Balkan War. The city became Albania's first capital following its independence, but was invaded by Italy in 1914, during الحرب العالمية الأولى. The city remained occupied by Italian forces until 1920, in which an Albanian rebellion forced the Italians out of Albania. Italy again invaded Vlorë in 1939. The city was under Italian occupation until Italy surrendered to the allies in 1943, following which Nazi Germany occupied the city until 1944. The city was liberated in 1944 by communist forces under Enver Hoxha.

During الحرب العالمية الثانية, the island of Sazan in Bay of Vlorë became the site of a German and Italian submarine base and naval installations; these were heavily bombed by the Allies.

Cemetery of the Partisans


المناخ

Vlorë has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with cool wet winters and hot, dry summers with temperatures exceeding 30 °C (86 °F)* in July and August.

بيانات مناخ ڤلورا
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 13
(55)
14
(57)
16
(61)
19
(66)
23
(73)
27
(81)
30
(86)
30
(86)
27
(81)
23
(73)
19
(66)
15
(59)
21٫3
(70٫3)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) 9.5
(49.1)
10.0
(50)
12.0
(53.6)
15.0
(59)
19.0
(66.2)
22.0
(71.6)
25.0
(77)
24.5
(76.1)
22.0
(71.6)
19.0
(66.2)
15.0
(59)
11.5
(52.7)
17٫0
(62٫6)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 6
(43)
6
(43)
8
(46)
10
(50)
14
(57)
17
(63)
19
(66)
19
(66)
16
(61)
14
(57)
11
(52)
8
(46)
12٫3
(54٫1)
هطول mm (inches) 120
(4.72)
106
(4.17)
92
(3.62)
79
(3.11)
54
(2.13)
28
(1.1)
9
(0.35)
26
(1.02)
32
(1.26)
116
(4.57)
192
(7.56)
141
(5.55)
995
(39٫17)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 13 12 14 11 9 6 3 3 5 10 17 17 120
Sunshine hours 133.3 147.9 173.6 225.0 272.8 318.0 368.9 344.1 279.0 210.8 117.0 99.2 2٬689٫6
Source: climatetemp.info[7]


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المعالم الرئيسية

Sunset on the Bay of Vlora, the Karaburun Peninsula can be seen
  • The building where Albanian independence was proclaimed on 28 November 1912. It is depicted on the reverses of the Albanian 200 lekë banknote of 1992-1996,[8] and of the 500 lekë banknote issued since 1996.[9]

العلاقات الدولية

بلدات توأم — مدن شقيقة

ڤلورا متوأمة مع:

انظر أيضاً

الهامش والمراجع

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ببليوگرافيا

  •  هذه المقالة تضم نصاً من مطبوعة هي الآن مشاعهربرمان, تشارلز, ed. (1913). الموسوعة الكاثوليكية. Robert Appleton Company.
  •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Avlona" . دائرة المعارف البريطانية (eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • "Vlorë." Encyclopædia Britannica, 2005
  • "Vlorë." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004
  • "Vlorë or Vlora, Ital. Valona, ancient Aulon." Crystal Reference Encyclopedia, 2001
  • Tourism Information about Vlorë, Albania (Written by American Robert Nagle in 2002).

الهامش

  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between Serbia and the local Albanian majority. The Assembly of Kosovo declared its independence on 17 February 2008, a move that is recognised and the Republic of China (Taiwan), but not by Serbia, which claims it as part of its sovereign territory.
  1. ^ 2011 census results
  2. ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1974. p. 479. ISBN  0-85229-290-2 .
  3. ^ google book reference: Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites By Adrian Room Published by McFarland, 2005, ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7, 433 pages.
  4. ^ "قالب:Eb9" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. 1878.
  5. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition (1911), "Avlona" article.
  6. ^ Gawrych, G. W. (2006). The crescent and the eagle: Ottoman rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874-1913. I.B.Tauris. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-84511-287-5. Google Book Search. Retrieved on August 25, 2009.
  7. ^ "Vlorë Weather Averages". August 2011.
  8. ^ Bank of Albania. Currency: Banknotes withdrawn from circulation. – Retrieved on 23 March 2009.
  9. ^ Bank of Albania. Currency: Banknotes in circulation. – Retrieved on 23 March 2009.

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Vlorë County قالب:Municipalities of Albania قالب:Albanian Riviera قالب:Vlorë