پمكس

پتروليوس مكسيكانوس
الاسم المحلي Petróleos Mexicanos
النوع State-owned enterprise
الصناعة النفط والغاز
تأسست يونيو 7, 1938; 81 years ago (1938-06-07)
المؤسس لازارو كاردناس
المقر الرئيسي مدينة المكسيك، المكسيك.
أشخاص رئيسيون Octavio Romero Oropeza (CEO)
المنتجات وقود، غاز طبيعي وبتروكيماويات وأخرى
الدخل 117.50 بليون دولار (2014)
الدخل الصافي 390 مليون دولار (2012)
إجمالي الأصول US$415.75 billion (2012)[1]
المالك الحكومة المكسيكية
الموظفون 138,215 (2011)
الموقع الإلكتروني pemex.com

پتروليوس مكسيكانوس Petróleos Mexicanos، وترجمتها النفط المكسيكي، وهي علامة تجارية وتشتهر بالاختصار Pemex (النطق الإسپاني: [ˈpemeks]، پـِمـِكس)، هي شركة نفط مملوكة للدولة المكسيكية، أنشئت في 1938 بتأميم أو مصادرة كل شركات النفط الخاصة (الأجنبية والمحلية) في ذلك الوقت. Pemex had total assets worth $415.75 billion, and was the world's second-largest non-publicly listed company by total market value (in December 2005),[2] and Latin America's second-largest enterprise by annual revenue as of 2009, surpassed only by Petrobras (the Brazilian National Oil Company).[3] The majority of its shares are not listed publicly and are under control of the Mexican government, with the value of its publicly listed shares totaling $202 billion in 2010, representing approximately one quarter of the company's total net worth.[2][4][5]

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التاريخ

Pemex gas station

Asphalt and pitch had been worked in Mexico since the time of the Aztecs. Small quantities of oil were first refined into kerosene around 1876 near Tampico. By 1917, commercial quantities of oil were being extracted and refined by subsidiaries of the British Pearson and American Doheny companies, and had attracted the attention of the Mexican government who then claimed all mineral rights for the state as part of its Constitution.

In 1938, President Lázaro Cárdenas (1934–40) sided with oil workers striking against foreign-owned oil companies for an increase in pay and social services. On March 18, 1938, citing Article 27 of the Constitution of 1917, President Cárdenas embarked on the state-expropriation of all resources and facilities, nationalizing the United States and AngloDutch operating companies, creating Pemex. He is famous in saying in his speech addressing the nation,

I ask the entire nation to furnish the necessary moral and material support to face the consequences of a decision which we, of our own free will, would neither have sought nor desired.[6]

He framed expropriation as a necessary national response to the injustice of the operations of foreign companies operating on Mexican soil. Expropriation was not outright confiscation, since the Mexican government promised to compensate companies. However, in retaliation, many foreign governments closed their markets to Mexican oil. In spite of the boycott, Pemex developed into one of the largest oil companies in the world and helped Mexico become the fifth-largest oil exporter in the world.[بحاجة لمصدر]

In an interview on the oil news website in November 2005, a Pemex employee spoke anonymously of the company's inability to grow production, stating that the company and country is at Hubbert's Peak. The person interviewed believed export levels could not be recovered once peak had passed, as the size of current fields that have been discovered or are coming online represent a fraction of the size of the oilfields going into terminal decline. Annual production has dropped each year since 2004.[7] Furthermore, it has been reported the 2005–2006 daily oil production was down by approximately 500,000 barrels per day (79,000 m3/d) (a large proportion of the country's 4,500,000 barrels) on the previous year. Pemex averaged 3.71 MMBPD in 2006.[7] Pemex has never produced 4 MMBPD or higher for a yearly average.[8] Pemex has been replaced as Latin America's largest company by Petrobras, according to the latest Latin Business Chronicle ranking of Latin America's Top 500 companies. To help capitalize the company, former President Vicente Fox brought forward the possibility of making shares of Pemex available to Mexican citizens and pension funds, to complement a current project-specific investment setup known as "Proyectos de Inversión Diferida En El Registro del Gasto" (Deferred Investment Projects in the Expenditure Registry);[9] this proposal, along with alleviating Pemex's heavy tax burden and a substantial budget increase, have met opposition in Congress.[10][11] President Felipe Calderón made clear at the beginning of his presidency that he would try his best to open up the sector to private investment. Pemex is Latin America's second-largest company measured by revenues, according to a ranking of the region's 500 largest companies by Latin Business Chronicle, behind Brazilian oil company Petrobras. In June 2009, Pemex has asked for an extra $1.5 billion state aid to finance oil fields investments, reported Bloomberg.

President Calderón called for change in Mexico's oil industry after output at Pemex fell at the fastest rate since 1942. His comments came after Petrobras and London-based BP said they made a "giant" oil find of as much as 3 billion barrels (480×10^6 m3) in the Gulf of Mexico southeast of Houston. According to Mexican Energy Minister Georgina Kessel, Mexico may seek to emulate Brazilian Oil rules that strengthened Petroleo Brasileiro SA as it considers regulation changes to revive the oil industry.[12]

In January 2014, Pemex signed a cooperation agreement with the Russian oil company Lukoil focusing on oil production and field exploration as well as exchange of knowledge in the aforementioned areas, including actions for ecological preservation and environmental protection.[13]

In February 2016, Emilio Lozoya Austin stepped down as CEO of Pemex, and was replaced by Dr. José Antonio González Anaya.[14]

On November 27, 2017, Dr. José Antonio González Anaya was appointed to be the Secretary of Finance and Public Credit. Carlos Alberto Treviño Medina was appointed CEO, sequentially.


العمليات

مكاتب پمكس في مدينة المكسيك

انظر أيضاً

المراجع

  1. ^ Daynes, Will. "Petroleos Mexicanos- PEMEX." Www.bus-ex.com. March 19, 2014. Accessed October 18, 2014. [1] Archived November 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ أ ب "FT Non-Public 150 – the full list". Financial Times. December 14, 2006.
  3. ^ "AméricaEconomía – Ránking las 500 mayores empresas de América latina". americaeconomia.com. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  4. ^ "Fortune Global 500 2010: 64. Pemex". Fortune Magazine. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
  5. ^ "Eig_Article". energyintel.com. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  6. ^ Government of, Mexico. "Expropriation." In Mexico’s Oil : A Compilation of Official Documents in the Conflict of Economic Order in the Petroleum Industry, with an Introduction Summarizing Its Causes and Consequences. Vol. 3. Mexico City: Government of Mexico, 1940. 877
  7. ^ أ ب "U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". Archived from the original on April 13, 2007. Retrieved May 24, 2007.
  8. ^ "U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". Archived from the original on April 2, 2007. Retrieved May 24, 2007.
  9. ^ Pemex.com | Frequently Asked Questions Archived March 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ "Pemex May Be Turning From Gusher To Black Hole". Business Week. December 13, 2004. Archived from the original on June 26, 2012.
  11. ^ "World Business Briefing – Americas: Mexico: Pemex to Increase Spending". The New York Times. March 2, 2006.
  12. ^ "Mexico May Emulate Petrobras as It Plans New Oil Laws (Update3)". Bloomberg. September 4, 2009.
  13. ^ Press bulletin from Pemex Archived July 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ "José Antonio González Anaya toma posesión como director general de Pemex". www.pemex.com. Retrieved March 10, 2016.

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