ميديا

In Greek mythology, Medea ( /mɪˈdə/; باليونانية: Μήδεια, Mēdeia, بالجورجية: მედეა, Medea) was the daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis,[1] niece of Circe, granddaughter of the sun god Helios, and later wife to the hero Jason, with whom she had two children, Mermeros and Pheres. In Euripides's play Medea, Jason leaves Medea when Creon, king of Corinth, offers him his daughter, Glauce.[2] The play tells of Medea avenging her husband's betrayal by slaying their children.


جاء في أسطورة ميديا ( Médée ) اليونانية أنّ جاسون ( Jason ) أُرسِل، بعد تنحِيَة أبيه عن الحكم، للحصول على « الجُزّة الذهبيّة «في كولشيدا ( Colchide )، في أقصى البحر الأسود. كان يحرس هذه الجُزّة تنّينٌ يقتل كلّ من يقترب منه. ولهذا أُرسِلَ أملاً في أن يقتله التنّين. ركب جاسون السفينة آرغو ( Argo ) وأبحر إلى كولشيدا. وعندما رأته ميديا ( Médée ) ابنة الحاكم، ينزل من السفينة، وقعَت في حبّه على نحوٍ جنونيّ، ولم تعُدْ قادرةً على أن ترفع بصرها عن وجهه. يصف الشاعر أوفيد ( Ovide ) ميديا عندما رأت جاسون، قائلاً : « حدّقت في وجهه. ركّزت عليه عينيها. بدا لها، في هذيانها العشقيّ، أنّ قسمات هذا الوجه تدلّ على أنّ صاحبه ليس من البشر الفانين. هكذا لم تعد قادرةً على تحويل نظرها عنه.» يُشارُ هنا إلى أنّ كوكبَ الشمس، كما تقول الأسطورة، هو جدّ ميديا. وأنّ سيرسي ( Circé ) عمّتها. وهذه هي نفسها الساحرة في ملحمة الأوديسّيه التي وصفها هوميروس، بأنها تحوّل الرجال إلى خنازير وأسود وذئاب. ورُوِيَ أنّ بطل الملحمة أوليس ( Ulysse ) أحبّها وتزوّج منها، وعاش معها شهراً كاملاً وأنجبت له ولداً. فرض حاكمُ كولشيدا على جاسون القيامَ بأعمالٍ صعبةٍ ومستحيلة، كانت ميديا تنقذه منها دائماً. وتنقذُه كذلك من الموت في مواجهة الثيران التي تنفُث الدُّخانَ واللّهب. وبفضل ميديا أيضاً ظفر جاسون بالجُزَّة الذهبيّة. وقد هيمن عليها حبُّه، فقتلت أخاها قبل أن يتمكّن من قتلهما معاً، واستسلمت بهيامٍ شبه جنونيّ إلى جاسون وتزوّجت منه.

تتطوّر أحداثُ الأسطورة على نحوٍ غريب ومُرعِب، فتثور ميديا على جاسون الذي تخلّى عنها، هي الأجنبيّة، لكي يتزوّج يونانيةً هي ابنةُ الحاكم. وتُتَوِّجُ ثورتَها هذه بذَبح ابنيها اللذَين أنجبَتْهما منه. وتنتهي الأسطورة بهذا الذّبح. تتعدّد وتتباين وجهات النّظر في تفسير هذه الأسطورة . أهمُّها اثنتان: ترى الأولى أنّ ميديا قتلت ولَديها انتقاماً من جاسون أبيهما وحبيبها، وترى الثانية أنّها قتلتهما، على العكس، رحمةً بهما وشفقةً عليهما. وهما نظرتان تكشفان عن التمازج في الإنسان والعالم، بين الأبعاد النفسيّة في تصرّفات البشر، والأبعاد التراجيديّة. في كلّ حـــال ترمز هذه الأسطورة إلى جانب معقّدٍ من طبـــيعة الحروب والصراعات في العالم اليونانيّ القـــديم، فهل ترمز كذلك بعد آلاف الســنين، إلى جــانب من طبيعة الصراعات والحروب في العالم العربيّ ـ قديماً وحديثاً؟ لكن مَن « جاسون « العربيّ؟ مَن « سيرسي « العربية؟ مَن « ميديا « الأجنبية ـ العربيّة؟ وما تكون « الجُزَّةُ الذّهبيّة « العربيّة؟

في هذا الإطار ينهض هذا السؤال: ما الذي يدفع الشعوبَ في بعض لحظات التاريخ إلى القيام بتصرّفاتٍ غير إنسانيّة تؤدّي إلى السقوط في جحيمٍ من المجازر والكوارث، الفرديّة والجماعيّة؟ ـ 2 ـ كيف يظهر التوحُّش بين أحضان الإنسان، وفي كَنَف الآلهة؟ السؤال تطرحه هذه الأسطورة. وهو سؤالٌ يستدعي التبسيط في أسئلةٍ أخرى. مثلاً من أين للتوحّش هذه القدرة على الحضور حيث لا مكانَ له، مبدئيّاً؟ ما الغاية من هذا الحضور؟ هل يتمّ بإرادةٍ من التوحُّش نفسه، أم يتمّ بإرادةٍ إنسيّة؟ أو بإرادةٍ ثالثة أخرى؟ ولماذا ينتصر ـ متنكِّراً؟

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Cultural depictions of Medea

The dramatic episodes in which Medea plays a role have ensured that she remains vividly represented in popular culture.


Literature

Primary sources

  • Cicero - in the court case Pro Caelio, the name Medea is mentioned at least five times, as a way to make fun of Clodia, sister of P. Clodius Pulcher, the man who exiled Cicero.
  • Ovid[3]
Heroides XII
Metamorphoses VII, 1-450
Tristia iii.9

Secondary material

Related literature

  • Robert Graves, Hercules, My Shipmate (novel by the English classicist, 1945)
  • Rachel Florence Roberts, The Medea Complex (Psychological Thriller, 2013. A fictional novel about insanity and inheritance, namely postnatal depression. The title is taken from the medical meaning of The Medea Complex, and describes the plot of the novel)
  • Medea (Ovid's lost tragedy - two lines are extant)[4]
  • Marina Carr, By the Bog of Cats
  • A. R. Gurney, The Golden Fleece
  • Pierre Corneille, Médée (tragedy, 1635)
  • Ernest Legouvé, Médée (1855)
  • William Morris Life and Death of Jason (epic poem, 1867)
  • Franz Grillparzer, Das goldene Vliess (The Golden Fleece) (play, 1822)
  • Dorothy M. Johnson, Witch Princess (novel, 1967)
  • Chico Buarque and Paulo Pontes, Gota d'Água (musical play set in 1970s Rio de Janeiro, based on Euripides, 1975)
  • Heiner Müller, Medeamaterial and Medeaplay
  • Pervical Everett, For Her Dark Skin (novel, 1990)
  • H. M. Hoover, The Dawn Palace: The Story of Medea (novel, 1988)
  • Christa Wolf, Medea (a novel) (published in German 1993, translated to English 1998)
  • Cherríe Moraga, The Hungry Woman: A Mexican Medea (combines classical Greek myth Medea with Mexicana/o legend of La Llorona and Aztec myth of lunar deity Coyolxauhqui)
  • Cicero, Pro Caelio (political speech) Cicero refers to Clodia as hanc Palatinam Medeam, "this Medea of the Palatine"
  • Stuart Hill, Blade Of Fire (Character portrayed as based on Medea in this Young adult novel)
  • Rick Riordan, The Lost Hero; Medea, having been resurrected by vengeful goddess Gaia, runs a department store in Chicago.
  • Morgan St. Knight, Curse of Prometheus: a tale of Medea Medea dwells in modern day Atlanta, and must fight one of the Olympian gods who has revived a deadly cult.
  • Kerry Greenwood, Medea: Book III in the Delphic Women Series (1997) a retelling of the Jason and the Argonauts epic, focusing on the Princess and Priestess, Medea of Colchis.

Music

  • Francesco Cavalli Giasone (opera, 1649)
  • Jean-Baptiste Lully Thésée (opera, 1674)
  • Louis-Nicholas Clerambault composed a cantata for soprano, violin and continuo, called Médée, and was first published in 1710.
  • Antonio Caldara "Medea in Corinto" (cantata for alto, 2 violins and basso continuo, 1711)
  • Marc-Antoine Charpentier Médée (tragédie en musique,1693)
  • In George Frideric Handel's opera Teseo [Theseus], 1713, the central character is Medea.
  • Georg Anton Benda composed the melodrama Medea in 1775 on a text by Friedrich Wilhelm Gotter.
  • Luigi Cherubini composed the opera Médée in 1797 and it is Cherubini's best-known work, but better known by its Italian title, Medea. A lost aria, which Cherubini apparently smudged out in spite more than 200 years ago, was revealed by x-ray scans.
  • Simon Mayr composed his opera Medea in Corinto to a libretto of [iuseppe Felice Romano. It premiered in Naples in 1813.
  • Saverio Mercadante composed his opera Medea in 1851 to a libretto by Salvadore Cammarano.
  • Darius Milhaud composed the opera Médée in 1939 to a text by Madeleine Milhaud (his wife and cousin).
  • American composer Samuel Barber wrote his Medea ballet (later renamed The Cave of the Heart) in 1947 for Martha Graham and derived from that Medea's Meditation & Dance of Vengeance Op. 23a in 1955. The musical Blast! uses an arrangement of Barber's Medea as their end to Act I.
  • Ray E. Luke's "Medea" won the 1979 Rockefeller Foundation/New England Conservatory Competition for Best New American Opera.
  • Jacob Druckman's 1980 orchestral work, Prism, is based on three different renderings of the Medea myth by Charpentier, Cavalli, and Cherubini. Each movement incorporates material and quotations from the music of Druckman's three predecessors. At the time of his death, Druckman was writing a large-scale grand opera on the Medea myth commissioned by the Metropolitan Opera.
  • Star of Indiana—the drum and bugle corps that Blast! formed out of—used Parados, Kantikos Agonias, and Dance of Vengeance in their 1993 production (with Bartók's Allegro from Music for Strings, Percussion and Celeste), between Kantikos and Vengeance.
  • In 1993 Chamber Made produced an opera Medea composed by Gordon Kerry, with text by Justin Macdonnell after Seneca.
  • Michael John LaChiusa scored "Marie Christine", a Broadway musical with heavy opera influence based on the story of Medea. The production premiered at the Vivian Beaumont Theater in December 1999 for a limited run under Lincoln Center Theater. LaChuisa's score and book were nominated for a Tony Award in 2000, as was a tour-de-force performance by three-time Tony winner Audra McDonald.
  • In 1991, the world premiere was held in the Teatro Arriaga, Bilbao of the opera Medea by Mikis Theodorakis. This was the first in Theodorakis' trilogy of lyrical tragedies, the others being Electra and Antigone.
  • Oscar Strasnoy's opera "Midea (2)", based on Irina Possamai's libretto, premiered in 2000 at Teatro Caio Melisso, Spoleto, Italy. Orpheus Opera Award.
  • Rockettothesky medea 2008
  • instrumental chamber music piece Medea by Dietmar Bonnen 2008
  • Dutch progressive rock band Kayak, with the song Medea, on their 2008 release Coming Up For Air
  • Dutch one-man project Spinvis, with the song Medea, in his album Goochelaars & Geesten in 2007
  • Vienna Teng, with the song My Medea on her 2004 album Warm Strangers.
  • The Finnish melodic death metal band Insomnium has a song about her called Medeia on their album In the Halls of Awaiting, which was released in 2002.
  • Greek Epic Metal band Battleroar has a song named "The Curse of Medea" in their 2014 album Blood of Legends.
  • Mauro Lanza composed the music to Le Songe De Médée, a ballet choreographed by Angelin Prelijocaj for the Ballet de l'Opéra national de Paris and featured in the film La Danse.
  • Alina Novikova (composer) and Daria Zholnerova, produced an opera Medea, based on Innokentiy Annenskiy, Evripid's translation. First performed in 2011, St. Petersburg, Russia
  • Aribert Reimann's opera "Medea" premiered in 2011 at the Vienna State Opera directed by Marco Arturo Marelli with Marlis Petersen in the title role.
  • The southern metal band The Showdown has a song called Medea - One Foot In Hell on their album Back Breaker, which was released in 2008.
  • English National Opera produced a UK premier staging of Charpentier's opera Médée in 2013. Director, David McVicar, Médée, Sarah Connolly


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Cinema and television

  • In the 1963 film Jason and the Argonauts, Medea was portrayed by Nancy Kovack. Here she is a Temple Dancer who Jason saves after her ship sinks, causing her to help him.
  • In the 2000 Hallmark presentation Jason and the Argonauts, Medea was portrayed by Jolene Blalock.
  • In 1969, the Italian director Pier Paolo Pasolini directed a film adaptation of Medea featuring the opera singer Maria Callas in the title role.
  • In 1978, the film A Dream of Passion in which Melina Mercouri as an actress portraying Medea seeks out Ellen Burstyn, a mother who recently murdered her children.
  • In 1988, director Lars von Trier filmed his Medea for Danish television, using a pre-existing script by filmmaker Carl Theodor Dreyer. Cast included Udo Kier, Kirsten Olesen, Henning Jensen, and Mette Munk Plum.
  • In the 1992 film Highway to Hell, Medea was portrayed by Anne Meara.
  • Medea (under the title of Caster) is one of the antagonists in the visual novel and anime Fate/stay night.
  • In the 2002 biopic of Mexican artist Frida Kahlo, Frida, Diego Rivera's previous wife Lupe Marín (played by Valeria Golino) and Frida Kahlo (played by Salma Hayek) talk of Lupe's response to Diego's infidelity. In response, Frida points a knife in a non-threatening gesture at Lupe, and calls her "Medea".
  • In the 2005 film L'enfer (Hell) a student Anne (Marie Gillain) takes a formal oral exam on the subject of Medea. Her words are spoken over images of her sister Sophie (Emmanuelle Béart) playing with her two children implying an analogy.[5]
  • In 2005, director Theo van Gogh created 6-part miniseries, moving Medea to Dutch politics.[6]
  • In 2007, director Tonino De Bernardi filmed a modern version of the myth, set in Paris and starring Isabelle Huppert as Medea, called Médée Miracle. The character of Medea lives in Paris with Jason, who leaves her.
  • In 2009, Medea was shot by director Natalia Kuznetsova. Film was created by the tragedy of Seneca in a new-for-cinema genre of Rhythmodrama, in which the main basis of acting and atmosphere is music written before shooting.

انظر أيضاً

Notes

  1. ^ Colchis was an ancient Georgian Kingdom
  2. ^ Glauce is known as Creusa in Seneca's Medea and in Propertius 2.16.30.
  3. ^ Ovid also wrote a full play called Medea from which only a few lines are preserved.
  4. ^ Fragments are printed and discussed by Theodor Heinze, Der XII. Heroidenbrief: Medea an Jason Mit einer Beilage: Die Fragmente der Tragödie Medea P. Ovidius Naso. (in series Mnemosyne, Supplements, 170. 1997
  5. ^ http://filmref.com/journal/archives/2006/02/lenfer_2005.html
  6. ^ ميديا at the Internet Movie Database

References

  • Apollodorus, Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921.
  • Clauss, J. J. and S. I. Johnston (eds), Medea: Essays on Medea in Myth, Literature, Philosophy and Art. (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1997). ISBN 9780691043760.
  • McDermott, Emily, Euripides' Medea: The Incarnation of Disorder. (University Park, PA, Penn State University Press, 1985). ISBN 9780271006475.
  • Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. London (1873). "Medeia or Medea"
  • Wygant, Amy, Medea, Magic, and Modernity in France: Stages and Histories, 1553-1797. (Aldershot, Ashgate, 2007). ISBN 9780754659242.


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