قزوين

قزوين

قزوین

Caspian, Minoodar, Razhia, Arsas
مدينة
كرڤان سراي سعد السلطنه
كرڤان سراي سعد السلطنه
Official seal of قزوين
Seal
الشعار الحادي: 
مرآن تاريخ وطبيعة إيران
قزوين is located in إيران
قزوين
قزوين
الإحداثيات: 36°16′N 50°00′E / 36.267°N 50.000°E / 36.267; 50.000Coordinates: 36°16′N 50°00′E / 36.267°N 50.000°E / 36.267; 50.000
البلدإيران إيران
المحافظةقزوين
المقاطعةقزوين
بخشالمركزي
الحكم
 • النوعMayor-Council
 • MayorSiavash Taherkhani
المساحة
 • مدينة64٫132 كم² (24٫762 ميل²)
الارتفاع1٬278 m (4٬193 ft)
التعداد(2016 census)
 • الكثافة9٬030/km2 (23٬400/sq mi)
 • الحضر402٬748 [1]
منطقة التوقيتIRST (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+3:30)
 • الصيفيIDST (UTC+4:30)
مفتاح الهاتف028
ClimateBSk
الموقع الإلكترونيqazvin.ir

قزوين هي عاصمة محافظة قزوين، إيران، وأكبر مدنها. عدد سكانها 331409 نسمة (عام 2005). بعد بحوالي 90 كيلومتراً شمال غرب مدينة طهران، 1800 متر فوق مستوى سطح البحر. لها مناخ بارد ولكنه جاف. كانت المدينة موقع عاصمة الإمبراطورية الفارسية. بها أكثر من 2000 معلم معماري تاريخي.

شاهزاده حسين، أحد المعالم المعمارية في مدينة قزوين

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المناخ

Qazvin has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa).

بيانات مناخ قزوين
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 5.1
(41.2)
7.6
(45.7)
13.7
(56.7)
20.0
(68)
25.9
(78.6)
32.2
(90)
35.6
(96.1)
34.6
(94.3)
30.9
(87.6)
23.1
(73.6)
15.4
(59.7)
8.1
(46.6)
21٫02
(69٫83)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) 0.2
(32.4)
2.4
(36.3)
7.7
(45.9)
13.2
(55.8)
18.3
(64.9)
23.4
(74.1)
26.7
(80.1)
25.8
(78.4)
21.9
(71.4)
15.5
(59.9)
9.2
(48.6)
3.1
(37.6)
13٫95
(57٫11)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) −4.7
(23.5)
−2.9
(26.8)
1.7
(35.1)
6.4
(43.5)
10.6
(51.1)
14.6
(58.3)
17.7
(63.9)
16.9
(62.4)
12.9
(55.2)
7.8
(46)
2.9
(37.2)
−1.9
(28.6)
6٫83
(44٫3)
هطول mm (inches) 44.5
(1.752)
40.8
(1.606)
52.1
(2.051)
41.0
(1.614)
34.5
(1.358)
5.9
(0.232)
1.2
(0.047)
1.9
(0.075)
0.8
(0.031)
21.7
(0.854)
27.8
(1.094)
44.0
(1.732)
316٫2
(12٫449)
Avg. precipitation days 10.5 10.1 13.3 13.3 12.7 4.5 2.4 2.3 2.0 7.7 7.9 9.7 96٫4
Source: World Meteorological Organisation


المعالم الرئيسية

Qazvin contains several archeological excavations. In the middle of the city lie the ruins of Meimoon Ghal'eh, one of several Sassanid edifices in the area.[بحاجة لمصدر]

Qazvin contains several buildings from the Safavid era, dating to the period in which it was capital of Persia. A well known of the surviving edifices is the Chehel sotoun, Qazvin,[2] today a museum in central Qazvin.

After Islam, the popularity of mystics (tasawwuf), as well as the prominence of tradition (Hadith), religious jurisprudence (fiqh), and philosophy in Qazvin, led to the emergence of many mosques and religious schools. They include:

  • الجامع العتيق، قزوين
  • مسجد الحيدرية
  • مسجد النبي (المسجد السلطاني): بمساحة 14000 م²، هذا المسجد هو أحد أعظم المساجد القديمة، بني في العصر الصفوي.
  • Sanjideh Mosque: Another mosque of Qazvin dating back to pre-Islamic Iran; a former fire temple. شكله الحالي يُنسب إلى العصر السلجوقي.
  • Panjeh Ali Mosque: A former place of worship for royal harem members in the Safavid period.
  • Peighambarieh School-Mosque: Founded 1644 according to inscription.
  • Peighambarieh Shrine: Where four Jewish saints who foretold the coming of Christ, are buried.[3][4][5]
  • مسجد ومدرسة ملا وردي‌خاني: تأسس في 1648.
  • Salehieh Madrasa and Mosque: Founded in 1817 by Mulla Muhammad Salih Baraghani.
  • Sheikhol Islam School-Mosque: Renovated in 1903.
  • Eltefatieh School: Dating back to the Il-Khanid period.
  • Sardar School- Mosque: Made by two brothers Hossein Khan and Hassan Khan Sardar in 1815, as a fulfillment of their promise if they came back victorious from a battle against the Russians.
  • Shazdeh Hosein Shrine; a c.15C CE shrine to a c.9C CE Shiite saint.
  • Aminiha Hosseiniyeh
The Russian Church of Qazvin today sits adjacent to the campus of Islamic Azad University of Qazvin.

About 100 kم (62 ميل) south-west of Qazvin are the tombs of two Saljuki era princes — Abu Saeed Bijar, son of Sa'd, and Abu Mansur Iltai, son of Takin — located in two separate towers known as the Kharraqan twin towers. Constructed in 1067 CE, these were the first monuments in Islamic architecture to include a non-conic two-layered dome. Both towers were severely damaged by a devastating earthquake in March 2003.

Sepah Street (خیابان سپه , pronounced "Cepah" referring to ancient Persian army and not the revolutionary guards pronounced "Sipaahe") is known as the first modern street in Iran. This street entirely is carpeted with carved gray stone and is surrounded by craftsmen gift shops (used to be bars or bygone liquorshops, called May'kadeh) and hosts historical places such as Qazvin's Ali Qapu gate, entrance of Jame' Atiq mosque and historical schools.

Qazvin has three buildings built by Russians in the late 19th/early 20th century. Among these is the current Mayor's office (former Ballet Hall) and a water reservoir. St. Nicholas church was built in 1904 by the Russian Company for Roads in Persia which had its headquarter here. The church was in use until being decommissioned in 1984 because the community of Russian emigres in Qazvin did not exist any more. The iconostasis and bell was removed to Tehran and the building handed over to the Iranian government which keeps it available to the public as a historic monument. In front of the church is a 1906 memorial to a Russian road engineer.[6]

الاقتصاد

A memorial of the many Qazvinis who died during the revolution of Iran and during the Iran–Iraq War.

Qazvin today is a center of textile trade, including cotton, silk and velvet, in addition to leather. It is on the railroad line and the highway between Tehran and Tabriz. Qazvin has one of the largest power plants feeding electricity into Iran's national power grid, the Shahid Raja'i facility, which provides 7% of Iran's electrical power.


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الكليات والجامعات

Qazvin has several institutes of higher education:

الأبراج الحديثة

Some famous residential towers are: Punak (536 units), Aseman, Elahieh, Bademestan (440 units in 17 floors) and Tejarat tower with 28 floors.

مجمعات التسوق

  • City Star in Khayam Street
  • Ferdowsi in Ferdowsi Street
  • Iranian in Adl Street
  • Narvan in Ferdowsi Street
  • Noor in Felestin Street
  • Meh ro mah Bouali Street
  • Alghadir on South Khayam Street
  • Alavi on Taleghani Street

الجسور

  • Naderi
  • Molasadra
  • Ertebatat
  • Persian Gulf (Khalij Fars)
  • Abotorabi
  • Nasr
  • Motahari
  • Imam Ali
  • Rajaei

أشهر الفنادق

  • Alborz
  • Safir
  • Mir Emad
  • Iranian
  • behrouzi historical house
  • Iran
  • Marmar
  • Razhia
  • Ghods(closed)
  • Grand Hotel, Qazvin
  • Noizar
  • Minno
  • Sina (new)

المنتزهات الكبيرة

  • Shohada
  • Dehkhoda
  • Beheshti
  • Fadak (Barajin)
  • Mellat
  • Al-Ghadir
  • Afarinesh
  • Molla Khalila

هايپرماركت

  • Proma Hypermarket (closed) HyperKeeper is new Brand .
  • Refah Chain Stores Co
  • Kourosh chain stores in several city blocks
  • Janbo chain stores
  • Ferdowsi supermarket in Adl sq.
  • Haft (7) Chain stores
  • Talaei’yeh Minoudar Supermarket
    • noor shopping mall hyper market * easy to access near city center


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النقل

الرياضة

Qazvin is a well-known city because of its famous athletes. The city has highly focused on athletic teams along recent years. Techmash is a basketball team which entered Iranian Basketball Super League in 2013.

أبرز القزوينيين

Qazvin is an ancient city containing fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages. This is the Shazdeh Hosein Shrine.

There have been an abundance of known people who lived in Qazvin, or came from Qazvin, whose tombs are scattered throughout the cities and villages of the province. These include:

قبل العصر الحديث

في العصر الحديث

Notable people buried in Qazvin

البلدات التوأم – المدن الشقيقة

انظر أيضاً

Mesjed Koucheek, Qazvin, in 1921. Today this building is referred to as Shazdeh Hosein Shrine.

المراجع

  1. ^ https://www.amar.org.ir/english
  2. ^ "Architecture of water supply to Chehel Sotoun studied". ISNA (in الإنجليزية). 2018-06-17. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  3. ^ "Arash Nooraghayee". Archived from the original on 2010-02-13. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  4. ^ iranian.com: Nima Kasraie, Qazvin water reservoirs
  5. ^ Peighambarieh Mausoleum in Qazvin: Burial place of Israeli prophets
  6. ^ РУССКАЯ ПРАВОСЛАВНАЯ ЦЕРКОВЬ В ПЕРСИИ – ИРАНЕ (1597–2001 гг.) Игумен Александр (Заркешев) Санкт-Петербург 2002 – Russian Orthodox Church in Persia-Iran 1597–2001, by abbot Alexander Zarkeshev, St Peterburg 2002, pp 70f and 110 Archived December 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.; the church is sometimes referred to as "Kantur" church from the name of the area where it stands
  7. ^ qiau.ac.ir
  8. ^ "Raja University". Archived from the original on 2017-10-06. Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  9. ^ afshbq.ac.ir Archived December 12, 2004, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ kar.ac.ir
  11. ^ adi.ac.ir
  12. ^ ghazali.ac.ir

وصلات خارجية

سبقه
Tabriz
Capital of Iran (Persia)
1555–1598
تبعه
Isfahan
سبقه
Tabriz
Capital of Safavid dynasty
1555–1598
تبعه
Isfahan