شفيلد

شفيلد

Sheffield
مع عقارب الساعة من أعلى اليسار: مبنى بلدية شفيلد؛ St Paul's Tower from Arundel Gate; the Wheel of Sheffield; Meadowhall shopping centre; محطة شفيلد and Sheaf Square. Park Hill at the bottom.
مع عقارب الساعة من أعلى اليسار: مبنى بلدية شفيلد؛ St Paul's Tower from Arundel Gate; the Wheel of Sheffield; Meadowhall shopping centre; محطة شفيلد and Sheaf Square. Park Hill at the bottom.
Official logo of شفيلد
Coat of Arms of the City Council
Nickname(s): 
"مدينة الصلب"
الشعار الحادي: 
"Deo Adjuvante Labor Proficit" "With God's help our labour is successful"
شفيلد في جنوب يوركشاير
خطأ لوا في وحدة:Location_map على السطر 485: Unable to find the specified location map definition: "Module:Location map/data/United Kingdom" does not exist.الموقع في المملكة المتحدة
الإحداثيات: 53°23′01″N 1°28′01″W / 53.38361°N 1.46694°W / 53.38361; -1.46694
الدولة المملكة المتحدة
البلد المكون إنگلترة
المنطقة يوركشاير والهمبر
Ceremonial county جنوب يوركشاير
المقاطعة التاريخية يوركشاير
Urban core and outlying areas
دربي‌شاير
بعض الضواحي الجنوبية
Founded ح. القرن الثامن
Town charter 10 August 1297
City status 1893
Administrative HQ Sheffield Town Hall
الحكم
 • النوع Metropolitan borough, مدينة
 • الكيان الحاكم مجلس مدينة شفيلد
 • Lord Mayor طالب حسين (ع)
 • زعيم المجلس Julie Dore (L)
 • MPs: Clive Betts (ع)
Paul Blomfield (ع)
Nick Clegg (LD)
Louise Haigh (ع)
Vacant[1]
Angela Smith (ع)
المساحة
 • City 367٫94 كم² (142٫06 ميل²)
التعداد(2008 تق.)
 • City 551٬800 (Ranked 3rd)
 • الكثافة 1٬500/km2 (4٬000/sq mi)
 • الحضر 640٬720
(Sheffield urban area)
 • الكثافة الحضرية 3٬949٫2/km2 (10٬228/sq mi)
 • العمرانية 1٬569٬000 [2]
صفة المواطن Sheffielder
منطقة التوقيت Greenwich Mean Time (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+0)
Postcode S
مفتاح الهاتف 0114
الموقع الإلكتروني www.sheffield.gov.uk

شفيلد (Sheffield ؛ /ˈʃɛfld/) هي مدينة وmetropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its largely industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base. The population of the City of Sheffield is 551,800 (2008 تق.)[3] and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group.[4] Sheffield is the third largest English district by population. The metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000.[2]

In the 19th century, Sheffield gained an international reputation for steel production. Many innovations were developed locally, including crucible and stainless steel, fuelling an almost tenfold increase in the population in the Industrial Revolution. Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area.

The 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield along with other British cities. Sheffield's gross value added (GVA) has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007. The economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber.[5]

The city is in the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin and the Sheaf. 61% of Sheffield's entire area is green space, and a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park.[6] There are more than 250 parks, woodlands and gardens in the city,[6] and an estimated 2 million trees, giving Sheffield the highest ratio of trees to people of any city in Europe.[6] The city has a long sporting heritage, and is home to the world's oldest football club.[7]

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التاريخ

Lithograph drawing showing a large stately home in ruins
Sheffield Manor ruins as they appeared c1819
View across a partially wooded valley containing a reservoir
Dale Dike Reservoir, the original dam wall of this reservoir collapsed in 1864 causing the Great Sheffield Flood


الحكم


الجغرافيا

المناخ

بيانات مناخ كاتدرائية شفيلد ، ارتفاع: 131م (1981–2010) الدرجات القصوى (1960–الحاضر)
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °س (°ف) 13.9
(57)
17.6
(63.7)
23.3
(73.9)
24.8
(76.6)
28.2
(82.8)
30.7
(87.3)
33.3
(91.9)
34.3
(93.7)
28.4
(83.1)
25.7
(78.3)
17.6
(63.7)
17.6
(63.7)
34٫3
(93٫7)
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 6.8
(44.2)
7.1
(44.8)
9.8
(49.6)
12.5
(54.5)
16.1
(61)
18.8
(65.8)
21.1
(70)
20.6
(69.1)
17.7
(63.9)
13.5
(56.3)
9.5
(49.1)
6.9
(44.4)
13٫4
(56٫1)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) 4.4
(39.9)
4.4
(39.9)
6.6
(43.9)
8.7
(47.7)
11.8
(53.2)
14.7
(58.5)
16.9
(62.4)
16.5
(61.7)
14.0
(57.2)
10.5
(50.9)
7.0
(44.6)
4.6
(40.3)
10٫0
(50)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 1.9
(35.4)
1.7
(35.1)
3.3
(37.9)
4.8
(40.6)
7.5
(45.5)
10.5
(50.9)
12.7
(54.9)
12.4
(54.3)
10.3
(50.5)
7.5
(45.5)
4.5
(40.1)
2.3
(36.1)
6٫6
(43٫9)
الصغرى القياسية °س (°ف) -9.2
(15.4)
-8.3
(17.1)
-8.3
(17.1)
-6.6
(20.1)
-0.7
(30.7)
1.4
(34.5)
3.9
(39)
4.2
(39.6)
1.9
(35.4)
-4.1
(24.6)
-7.2
(19)
-9.1
(15.6)
-9٫2
(15٫4)
هطول mm (inches) 83.4
(3.283)
60.4
(2.378)
63.4
(2.496)
65.5
(2.579)
53.8
(2.118)
75.6
(2.976)
56.0
(2.205)
65.3
(2.571)
63.8
(2.512)
81.2
(3.197)
79.4
(3.126)
86.7
(3.413)
834٫6
(32٫858)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 13.4 10.5 12.3 10.3 9.6 9.1 9.2 9.9 8.9 12.7 12.6 13.0 131٫6
Sunshine hours 45.2 68.3 111.9 144.0 190.9 179.5 199.5 185.0 136.2 90.7 53.7 40.0 1٬444٫9
Source #1: Met Office[8]
Source #2: KNMI[9]


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الديمغرافيا

Population Change
Year Pop. ±%
1801 60٬095 —    
1821 84٬540 +40.7%
1841 134٬599 +59.2%
1861 219٬634 +63.2%
1881 335٬953 +53.0%
1901 451٬195 +34.3%
1921 543٬336 +20.4%
1941 569٬884 +4.9%
1951 577٬050 +1.3%
1961 574٬915 −0.4%
1971 572٬794 −0.4%
1981 530٬844 −7.3%
1991 528٬708 −0.4%
2001 513٬234 −2.9%
2007 530٬300 +3.3%
2011 551٬800 +4.1%
[10]


الاقتصاد

ملامح العمالة
Total employee jobs 255,700
Full-time 168,000 65.7%
Part-time 87,700 34.3%
Manufacturing 31,800 12.4%
Construction 8,500 3.3%
Services 214,900 84.1%
Distribution, hotels & restaurants 58,800 23.0%
Transport & communications 14,200 5.5%
Finance, IT, other business activities 51,800 20.2%
Public admin, education & health 77,500 30.3%
Other services 12,700 5.0%
Tourism-related 18,400 7.2%
St Paul's Tower, a new, mixed use development which forms part of the St Paul's Place development. In the top left corner is the Main St Paul's tower itself. Below it is the Tower 2, connected to the main tower but half the height. To the right is another office building in the same development. All have been completed within the last 5 years and represent some of the newest architecture in the city.
St Paul's Place, 2010. St Paul's Tower, the tallest building in Sheffield, is in the centre.


The Bessemer Converter located at Kelham Island Museum. The converter is located within an old industrial facility typical of those constructed during the Industrial Revolution.
The Bessemer Converter at Kelham Island Museum.
Fargate shopping precinct, Sheffield. Once a busy road, it has been pedestrianised for several decades and is Sheffield's main City Centre shopping area, home to many well-known companies. The image shows classical architecture on both sides with one plan spaces in the centre, dotted with trees and the buildings on the High Street are visible beyond the trees.
Fargate shopping area



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التعليم

Blue/Grey skyscraper with a glass curtain wall. In the foreground is park pond with a small wooden bridge and trees at either side. In between the Tower and the pond is a modern 2-storey building

تحتضن جامعة شفيلد التي تعتبر من مجموعة جامعات القرميد الأحمر، وأخرى تدعى جامعة شفيلد هالام.

الرياضة

من نواديها شيفيلد يونايتد وشيفيلد وينزداي.

المواصلات


تقع على الطريق السريع رقم 1 الذي يربطها بلندن من جهة، وبليدز ثم الشمال الشرقي من الجهة الأخرى. كما يربطها بإدنبرة ولندن سكة حديد الساحل الشرقي الرئيسية، وترتبط بكافة المدن القريبة بقطارات وطرق. داخليا هناك ترام حديث يربط أنحاء المدينة وضواحيها بمركزها التجاري.

محطة قطارات شفيلد، 2013


السفر الداخلي

The start of the Sheffield Parkway, as viewed from Park Square, where it meets the City Centre. The road, in the centre, is six lanes wide and leads towards the Parkway Edge development (left-centre) where the road meets the Inner Ring Road. To the right is the Sheffield Supertram viaduct and beyond that a new apartment complex.
The Sheffield Parkway terminus at Park Square. The opposite end connects to the M1 motorway at Junction 33.


المعالم

يوجد مركز تسوق مستقل على طرف المدينة يسمى «ميدوهال» بالإنگليزية: Meadowhall.

المدن الشقيقة

The "Sheffield International Linking Committee" promotes Sheffield overseas, especially with five sister cities:[11]

A further four cities have a Friendship Agreement with Sheffield:

Two roads in Sheffield have been named after sister cities; a section of the A6102 in Norton is named Bochum Parkway, and a road in Hackenthorpe is named Donetsk Way. Likewise in Bochum, Germany there is a major road called the Sheffield-Ring.

انظر أيضاً

المصادر

  • شفيلد - الموسوعة العربية الميسرة، 1965

المراجع والملاحظات

  1. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/12147039/Harry-Harpham-MP-obituary.html
  2. ^ أ ب British Urban Pattern: Population Data (Epson)
  3. ^ The mid-2008 تق. population for the whole City of Sheffield was 551,800 according to the Office for National Statistics (قالب:English district population citation), though some population figures, like those given at List of English cities by population, use just the urban core of the city and are therefore lower.
  4. ^ "Sheffield".
  5. ^ "Income & Wealth". Sheffield City Council. 30 November 2007. Archived from the original on 21 May 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  6. ^ أ ب ت "City Profile Introduction". Sheffield City Council. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  7. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة celebration
  8. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Met Averages
  9. ^ "Sheffield extreme values". KNMI. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  10. ^ "Sheffield District: Total Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Great Britain Historical GIS Project. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
  11. ^ "International Links". Sheffield City Council. Retrieved 6 May 2010.

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وصلات خارجية

قالب:Sheffield قالب:South Yorkshire

قالب:Metropolitan districts of England

الإحداثيات: 53°23′01″N 1°28′01″W / 53.38361°N 1.46694°W / 53.38361; -1.46694