خوان خوسيه كاستلي

هذا المقال يتضمن أسماءً أعجمية تتطلب حروفاً إضافية (پ چ ژ گ ڤ ڠ).
لمطالعة نسخة مبسطة، بدون حروف إضافية
خوان خوسيه كاستلي
Juan José Castelli
Castelli.jpg
Committee member of the Primera Junta
في المنصب
May 25, 1810 – June 9, 1811
تخدم مع Manuel Alberti, Miguel de Azcuénaga, Manuel Belgrano, Domingo Matheu, Juan Larrea
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد July 19, 1764
Buenos Aires, Viceroyalty of Peru
توفي أكتوبر 12, 1812(1812-10-12) (عن عمر 48 عاماً)
Buenos Aires, United Provinces of the Río de la Plata
المدفن San Ignacio Church
القومية Argentine
الحزب Carlotism, Patriot
الزوج María Rosa Lynch
الجامعة الأم University of Chuquisaca
المهنة Lawyer
الدين Catholic
التوقيع
الخدمة العسكرية
الولاء الأرجنتين United Provinces of South America
سنوات الخدمة 1810–1811
قاد Army of the North
المعارك/الحروب First Upper Peru campaign

خوان خوسيه كاستلي Juan José Castelli ‏(19 يوليو 176412 أكتوبر 1812) كان محامياً أرجنتينياً. وكان أحد قادة ثورة مايو، التي بدأت حرب الاستقلال الأرجنتينية. وقد قاد الحملة العسكرية المشئومة في پيرو العليا.

Juan José Castelli was born in Buenos Aires, and went to school at the Real Colegio de San Carlos in Buenos Aires and Monserrat College in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. He graduated as a lawyer from the University of Charcas, in Upper Peru. His cousin, Manuel Belgrano, introduced him to the public administration of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata. Along with Belgrano, Nicolás Rodríguez Peña, and Hipólito Vieytes, Castelli planned a revolution to replace the absolute monarchy with the new ideas of the Age of Enlightenment. He led the Buenos Aires patriots during the May Revolution, which ended with the removal of viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros from power. He is known as the "Speaker of the Revolution" for his speech during the open cabildo held in Buenos Aires on May 22, 1810.

Castelli was appointed a Committee member of the Primera Junta and was sent to Córdoba to end Santiago de Liniers's counter-revolution. He succeeded, and ordered the execution of Liniers and his supporters. He then commanded the establishment of a revolutionary government in Upper Peru (today's Bolivia) with the aim of freeing the indigenous peoples and African slaves. In 1811 Castelli signed a truce with the Spanish in Upper Peru, but they betrayed him and caught the Northern Army unprepared. As a result, the Argentines suffered a major loss in the Battle of Huaqui on June 20, 1811. When Castelli returned to Buenos Aires, the First Triumvirate imprisoned him for losing the battle, and Castelli died shortly afterwards from tongue cancer.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

سيرته

First political steps

Manuel Belgrano, Castelli's cousin, worked with him at the consulate and in local newspapers.


The British invasions

Rodriguez Peña introduced Castelli to James Florence Burke, who claimed to represent the British Empire in support of proposals published by Francisco de Miranda, which aimed to emancipate the Latin American colonies. Burke was actually a British spy, gathering information about the Spanish colonies. Bearing promises of British support, he created the first native secret society organized for such purposes. It would henceforth be known as "party of independence", and included Castelli, Burke and major contributors of Vieytes's newspaper. The spy was eventually discovered by Viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte and expelled from the viceroyalty, but his duplicity was not disclosed to his unaware associates.[1]


Carlotism

Charlotte of Spain sought to rule the Río de la Plata as regent.

Napoleon invaded Spain in 1807, starting the Peninsular War. King Charles IV of Spain abdicated in favor of his son Ferdinand VII, but Napoleon captured him and appointed his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as king of Spain instead, in a series of transfers of the Spanish crown known as the abdications of Bayonne. The Spanish people organized Government Juntas to resist against the French occupation, and within months the Junta Central of Seville claimed supreme authority over Spain and the colonies. This situation encouraged the Princess Charlotte of Spain to claim the regency of the Spanish American colonies.[2]


ثورة مايو

This bas-relief by Gustavo Everlein depicts Castelli demanding that the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros allow an open cabildo.


The open cabildo of May 22, 1810


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Execution of Liniers

The execution of Santiago de Liniers


Campaign in Upper Peru

The command of the royalist viceroy, calling for a denial of recognition of the Primera Junta


The Battle of Huaqui

Legacy

Castelli is largely ignored in the historiography of Argentina. Most historians focus instead on the disputes between Mariano Moreno and Cornelio Saavedra in the Junta, with Castelli described in passing as a supporter of Moreno.[3] Despite of his role in the May Revolution, he was not the clear leader of it, as José Gervasio Artigas was for the Cry of Asencio or Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla for the Cry of Dolores. The May Revolution was instead the result of the convergence of diverse factions that shared the desire to remove the viceroy, and different historians highlight different specific factions.[4] Castelli is largely ignored in Bolivia as well. His support of indigenous rights—still an ongoing issue in the country—and his religious ideas strongly affect the way he is perceived there.[5]

The most notable biography of Castelli was Castelli, el adalid de Mayo (بالاسپانية: Castelli, the champion of May), written by the Paraguayan Julio César Chaves. Andrés Rivera increased the public awareness about Castelli with the historical novel La revolución es un sueño eterno (بالاسپانية: The revolution is an eternal dream). The famous divulgator Felipe Pigna wrote a whole chapter about Castelli at the book Los mitos de la historia argentina, which was then moved to television in the documentary film Algo habrán hecho por la historia argentina.[5]

المراجع

  1. ^ Luna (2001), pp. 24–29
  2. ^ Luna (2001), pp. 44–47
  3. ^ Scenna, pp. 5–10
  4. ^ Gelman, pp. 13–20
  5. ^ أ ب Lapolla


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bibliography

  • Gelman, Jorge; Raúl Fradkin (2010). Doscientos años pensando la Revolución de Mayo. Buenos Aires: Sudamericana. ISBN 978-950-07-3179-9.
  • Luna, Félix (2001). Grandes protagonistas de la Historia Argentina: Juan José Castelli (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Grupo Editorial Planeta. ISBN 950-49-0656-7.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Luna, Félix (2004). "El contrabando, una singular forma de comercio en las colonias". Grandes protagonistas de la Historia Argentina: Manuel Belgrano (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Grupo Editorial Planeta. ISBN 950-49-1247-8.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Galasso, Norberto (2004). Mariano Moreno, "El sabiecito del sur" (in Spanish). Buenos Aires, Argentina: Colihue. ISBN 950-581-799-1.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Alberto Lapolla (06/05/2008). "El héroe maldito: Juan José Castelli" [The cursed hero: Juan José Castelli]. El Sol del 25 viene asomando, apuntes para repensar Mayo (in Spanish). Avizora. Retrieved October 28, 2011. Check date values in: |date= (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • National Academy of History of Argentina (2010). Revolución en el Plata (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Emece. ISBN 978-950-04-3258-0.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Scenna, Miguel Ángel (2009). Mariano Moreno (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: H. Garetto Editor. ISBN 978-987-1494-05-4.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Argentine War of Independence