بربودا

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Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda map.png
Caribbean - Barbuda.PNG
الجغرافيا
الموقع البحر الكاريبي
الإحداثيات 17°37′N 61°48′W / 17.617°N 61.800°W / 17.617; -61.800الإحداثيات: 17°37′N 61°48′W / 17.617°N 61.800°W / 17.617; -61.800
الأرخبيل Leeward Islands, الأنتيل الصغرى
المساحة 160.56 km2 (61.99 sq mi)
أعلى منسوب 38 m (125 ft)
أعلى نقطة Highlands
الادارة
أنتيگا وبربودا
أكبر settlement Codrington (pop. 1,252)
الديمغرافيا
التعداد 1,638 (2011)
الكثافة السكانية 10.2 /km2 (26.4 /sq mi)

بربودا Barbuda هي جزيرة في شرق الكاريبي, and forms part of the state of أنتيگا وبربودا. It has a population of about 1,638 (at the 2011 Census), most of whom live in the town of Codrington.

الموقع

Barbuda is located north of Antigua, in the middle of the Leeward Islands. To the south are the islands of Montserrat and Guadeloupe, and to the west and north west are Nevis, St. Kitts, St. Barts, and St. Martin.

التاريخ

The Ciboney were the first to inhabit the island of Barbuda in 2400 BCAccording to the cited article this belief is mistaken as the Ciboney name was mis-applied to earlier aboriginal groupings[محل شك], but Arawak and Carib Indians populated the island when Christopher Columbus landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English, who formed a colony in 1666.

In 1685 Barbuda was leased to brothers Christopher and John Codrington, who had founded the town of Codrington. The Codrington family produced food on their land in Barbuda, and also transported slaves as labour for their sugarcane plantations في أنتيگا. There was more than one slave rebellion at Codrington during the 1740s, during which slaves rose against managers. All the slaves were freed in 1834.

Despite a common belief, even by Barbudans themselves, the island was never used as a "stud farm" for slave-breeding experiments. At most, the Codringtons considered using Barbuda as a "nursery", where slave children would be fed and cared for to then work on Antiguan plantations, but this plan was also never realized.[1]

The first map of Barbuda was made in the second half of the 18th century. At that time there were substantial buildings in the Highland area, a castle in Codrington, a fort at River, now known as the Martello Tower, and houses at Palmetto Point, Coco Point, and Castle Hill. The map shows eight catching pens for holding captured runaway slaves, indicating that this was a serious problem. There were several defensive cannon gun battery units around the island perimeter. There was a large plantation in the Meadow and Guava area and another large plantation in the Highlands area.

On 1 November 1981, the island gained its independence as an integral part of أنتيگا وبربودا, a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. In a 1989 election the Barbuda Independence Movement received too few votes to qualify for a seat in the national parliament.

وفي 6 سبتمبر 2017، Hurricane Irma, at Category 5, swept through the island. رئيس الوزراء Gaston Browne stated that there had been damage to 95% of the structures.[2]

المعالم

Barbuda is home to the Frigate Bird Sanctuary, which is located in the Codrington Lagoon. Other points of interest include Highland House (the 18th-century home of the Codrington family) and the Indian Cave, which contains ancient Amerindian petroglyphs.

السياحة

Barbuda's climate and geography is conducive to tourism. Barbuda is served by Barbuda Codrington Airport and also has a ferry service to Antigua. Many tourists are attracted by the island's beaches. Activities include a bird sanctuary, swimming, snorkeling, fishing, and caving. Only two operating resorts are located on the island; the rest are abandoned after poor management, difficult infrastructure and hurricane damage.[3]

Geography

The total land area is 160.56 km2. The capital and largest town is Codrington, with an estimated population of 1,638 (2011 population census). The island is mostly coral limestone with little topographical variation. The "highlands" area on the eastern side of the island has hills rising to 125 ft (38 m), but the majority of the island is very flat, with many lagoons in the northwest corner.

الحياة البرية

The Antiguan racer is among the rarest snakes in the world. The Lesser Antilles are home to four species of racers. All four have undergone severe range reductions; at least two subspecies are extinct and another, A. antiguae, now occupies only 0.1 per cent of its historical range.[4]

Griswold's ameiva (Ameiva griswoldi) is a species of lizard in the genus Ameiva. It is endemic to Antigua and Barbuda and is found on both islands.

المناخ

The climate is classified as tropical marine which means that there is little seasonal temperature variation. In January and February, the coolest months, the average daily high temperature is 27 °C (81 °F), while in July and August, the warmest months, the average daily high is 30 °C (86 °F).

الهامش

  1. ^ Lowenthal, David A.; Clarke, Colin G. (1977). "Slave-Breeding in Barbuda: The Past of a Negro Myth.". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 292 (1): 510–35. 
  2. ^ Hanna, Jason; Sterling, Joe; Almasy, Steve (2017-09-06). "Hurricane Irma: Powerful storm blamed for three deaths". ABS TV Radio Antigua & Barbuda. CNN. Retrieved 2017-09-06. 
  3. ^ The Island of Barbuda Retrieved 2011-09-23
  4. ^ Sajdaka, Richard A.; Henderson, Robert W. (1991). "Status of West Indian racers in the Lesser Antilles". Oyx. 25 (1): 33–38. 

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Parishes and dependencies of Antigua and Barbuda