أرشيبولد كوكس

أرشيبولد كوكس
Archibald Cox 04989v.jpg
31st United States Solicitor General
في المنصب
January 1961 – July 1965
الرئيس جون كندي
ليندون جونسون
سبقه J. Lee Rankin
خلفه ثرگود مارشال
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد Archibald Cox, Jr.
May 17, 1912 (1912-05-17)
پلينفيلد، نيوجرزي، الولايات المتحدة
توفي May 29, 2004 (2004-05-30) (عن عمر 92)
بروكڤل، مين، الولايات المتحدة
الحزب Democrat
الزوج Phyllis Ames Cox (June 13, 1937-his death).
الأنجال Sarah, Archibald, Jr. and Phyllis
الجامعة الأم Harvard College (B.A., 1934)
كلية حقوق هارڤرد (J.D., 1937)

أرشيبولد كوكس، الابن (Archibald Cox, Jr.؛ 17 مايو 191229 مايو 2004) كان محامياً ودارس حقوقي وأستاذ جامعي أمريكي، تأرجح عمله بين العمل الأكاديمي والحكومة. فكعضو في هيئة التعليم في كلية حقوق هارڤرد، أصبح واحداً من أوائل الخبراء في قانون العمل الفدرالي. وفي 1948 نشر أول كتاب قضايا في قانون العمل للاستخدام في كليات الحقوق، وهو الكتاب الذي كان يُحدّث ويضاف إليه دورياً حتى 2011. A prolific writer, he published dozens of articles on developments in labor relations. Even while teaching full-time, he became a noted labor arbitrator and wage stabilizer, in the latter role facing off against the United Mine Workers in an industrial dispute that touched on national security issues during the Korean War.

He became Senator John F. Kennedy's labor advisor in connection with the senator's single major legislative project, a bill that would become the Landrum–Griffin amendments, and as a result of that role became head of Kennedy's presidential campaign's brain trust, recruiting intellectuals and coordinating policy research and speech-writing for the campaign. In 1961 President Kennedy appointed him solicitor general, an office he held for four and a half years during which time he briefed and argued some of the most consequential decisions of the Warren Court. On return to Harvard he expanded on his experience in government to write on and teach constitutional law. As a high-profile liberal, he was chosen to head a blue ribbon commission that investigated the student strikes that closed down Columbia University in the Spring of 1968. After that experience, he became Harvard's point man dealing with student disorders at Harvard for the next three years.

وقد اشتهر كوكس عالمياً حين أجبرت الضغوط وتهم الفساد ضد الأشخاص المحيطين بالرئيس رتشارد نكسون، المرشح لمنصب المدعي العام إليوت رتشاردسون على تعيينه (بناء على سمعته الجيدة واستقلاله عن الرئيس) كـوكيل نيابة خاص للاشراف على التحقيقات الجنائية الفدرالية في السرقة في واترگيت والجرائم الأخرى المتصلة بها، وأنشطة الفساد والمخالفات التي صارت تُعرف شعبياً بإسم فضيحة واترگيت. His investigation led him directly to the president himself, and he had a dramatic confrontation with Nixon when he subpoenaed the tapes the president had secretly recorded of his Oval Office conversations. When Cox refused a direct order from the White House to seek no further tapes or presidential materials, Nixon fired him in an incident that became known as the Saturday Night Massacre. Cox's calm, reasonable and impeccably dignified explanations of his positions earned him overwhelming support among the professional bar and a great deal of popularity among the country at large. His firing produced a public relations disaster for Nixon and set in motion impeachment proceedings. In the end, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously against the president and in favor of the position taken by Cox in an opinion written by Nixon appointee Chief Justice وارن برگر. Rather than face impeachment and trial with the tapes as evidence, Richard Nixon became the only United States president to resign.

Cox returned to teaching, lecturing and writing for the rest of his life, giving his opinions on the role of the court in the development of the law and the role of the lawyer in society. Although he was recommended to President Jimmy Carter for a seat on the First Circuit Court of Appeals, his nomination fell victim to the dispute between the president and Senator تد كندي. He was appointed to head several public-service, watchdog and good-government organizations, including serving for 12 years as head of Common Cause. In addition he argued two important Supreme Court cases, winning both: one concerning the constitutionality of federal campaign finance restrictions and the other the first case testing affirmative action.

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أعمال مختارة

كتب:

  • Cases on Labor Law. Brooklyn, New York: Foundation Press. 1948. LCCN 48004767. (This casebook was periodically updated by Foundation Press. The latest edition is the 15th in 2011, which also has as authors: Derek Curtis Bok, Robert A. Gorman, Matthew W. Finkin.)
  • Law and the National Labor Policy. Los Angeles: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California. 1960. LCCN 60063285.
  • The Warren Court: Constitutional Decision as an Instrument of Reform. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 1968. LCCN 68021971. (Lectures originally given in shorter form at a summer school conducted in Honolulu in 1967.)
  • Cox, Archibald; Howe, Mark DeWolfe; Wiggins, J.R. (1967). Civil Rights, the Constitution, and the Courts. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. LCCN 67020874.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Bar Association of India Lectures. New Delhi: Bar Association of India. 1981.
  • 'The Role of the Supreme Court in American Government. London, New York: Oxford Universityi Press. 1977. ISBN 0198274114.
  • 'The Court and the Constitution. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. 1987. ISBN 0395379334.
  • Norman Dorsen, ed. (1989). The Evolving Constitution: Essays on the Bill of Rights and the U.S. Supreme Court. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. (foreword by Cox)

مقالات بدوريات:

  • "Some Aspects of the Labor Management Relations Act, 1947". Harvard Law Review. 61 (1): 1–49. November 1947. doi:10.2307/1335189. 61 (2): 274–315. January 1947.
  • "Judge Learned Hand and the Interpretation of Statutes". Harvard Law Review. 60 (3): 370–93. February 1947.
  • "The Influence of Mr. Justice Murphy on Labor Law". Michigan Law Review. 48 (6): 767–810. April 1950. doi:10.2307/1284432.
  • Cox, Archibald; Dunlop, John T. (January 1950). "Regulation of Collective Bargaining by the National Labor Relations Board". Harvard Law Review. 63 (3): 389–432. doi:10.2307/1336243.
  • Cox, Archibald; Dunlop, John T. (May 1950). "The Duty to Bargain Collectively During the Term of an Existing Agreement". Harvard Law Review. 63 (7): 1097–133. doi:10.2307/1335973.
  • Cox, Archibald; Seidman, Marshall J. (December 1950). "Federalism and Labor Relations". Harvard Law Review. 64 (2): 211–45. doi:10.2307/1336175.
  • "The Right to Engage in Concerted Activities". Indiana Law Journal. 28 (3): 319–48. Spring 1951.
  • "Strikes, Picketing and the Constitution". Vanderbilt Law Review. 4 (3): 574–602. April 1951.
  • "Legal Aspects of Labor Arbitration in New England". Arbitration Journal. 8 (1): 5–20. 1953.
  • "Government Regulation of the Negotiation and Terms of Collective Agreement: An address". University of Pennsylvania Law Review. 101 (8): 1137–53. June 1953. doi:10.2307/3310045.
  • "Revision of the Taft-Hartley Act". West Virginia Law Review. 55 (2): 91–109. June 1953.
  • "The New Wage Stabilization Board". Proceedings of the Labor Relations Section, San Francisco, September 16–17, 1953. Chicago: American Bar Association: 20–41. 1953.
  • "The Role of Law in Labor Disputes". Cornell Law Quarterly. 39 (4): 592–610. Summer 1954.
  • "Grievance Arbitration in the Federal Courts". Harvard Law Review. 67 (4): 591–607. February 1954. doi:10.2307/1337241.
  • "Federal Preemption of the Law of Labor Relations". The Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference on Labor, New York University. Albany: Matthew Bender and Co., New York University: 1–27. 1955.
  • "Labor and Antitrust Laws: A Preliminary Analysis". University of Pennsylvania Law Review. 104 (2): 252–84. November 1955. doi:10.2307/3309877.
  • "Some Lawyers' Problems in Grievance Arbitrations". Minnesota Law Review. 40 (1): 41–59. December 1955.
  • "Rights Under a Labor Agreement". Harvard Law Review. 69 (4): 601–57. February 1956. doi:10.2307/1337469.
  • "Law and the Future: Labor Management Relations". Northwestern University Law Review. 51 (2): 240–57. May 1956.
  • "The Legal Nature of Collective Bargaining Agreements". Temple Law Quarterly. 30 (1): 1–36. Fall 1956.
  • "Labor-Management Relations Law in the Supreme Court October Term, 1955". Proceedings of the Section of Labor Relations Law, Dallas, August 27–28, 1956. Chicago: American Bar Center: 5–29. 1956.
  • "Labor Law and the American Constitution". University of Queensland Law Journal. 3 (1): 5–22. December 1956.
  • "The Duty of Fair Representation". Villanova Law Review. 2 (2): 151–77. January 1957.
  • "Current Problems in the Law of Grievance Arbitration". Rocky Mountain Law Review. 30 (3): 247–66. April 1958.
  • "The Duty to Bargain in Good Faith". Harvard Law Review. 71 (8): 1401–42. June 1958. doi:10.2307/1337921.
  • "The Labor Decisions of the Supreme Court at the October Term 1957". Proceedings of the Section of Labor Relations Law, Los Angeles, August 25–26, 1958. Chicago: American Bar Center: 12–44. 1958.
  • "The Labor Decisions of the Supreme Court at the October Term, 1957". Virginia Law Review. 44 (7): 1057–92. 1958. doi:10.2307/1070935.
  • "Labor Unions and the Public Interest". Marquette Law Review. 42 (1): 2–6, 28–35. Summer 1958.
  • "Review of Labor Union Monopoly by Donald R. Richberg". Minnesota Law Review. 42 (3): 516–26. January 1958.
  • "The Landrum–Griffin Amendments to the National Labor Relations Act". Minnesota Law Review. 44 (2): 257–74. January 1959.
  • "Uses and Abuses of Union Power". Notre Dame Lawyer. 35 (5): 624–39. January 1959.
  • "The Role of Law in Preserving Union Democracy". Harvard Law Review. 72 (4): 609–44. February 1959. doi:10.2307/1338296.
  • "Reflections Upon Labor Arbitration". Harvard Law Review. 72 (8): 1482–518. June 1959. doi:10.2307/1338034.
  • "Labor Arbitration in New Jersey". Rutgers Law Review. 14 (1): 143–84. Fall 1959.
  • "The Major Labor Decisions of the Supreme Court October Term 1958". Proceedings of the Section of Labor Relations Law, Bal Harbour-Miami Beach, August 24–25, 1959. Chicago: American Bar Center: 23–37. 1959.
  • "Reflections Upon Labor Arbitration in Light of the Lincoln Mills Case". Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Meeting, National Academy of Arbitrators. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of National Affairs. 1959.
  • "Internal Affairs of Labor Unions under the Labor Reform Act of 1959". Michigan Law Review. 58 (6): 819–54. April 1960. doi:10.2307/1286305.
  • "Nature of Supreme Court Litigation". Journal of the American Judicature Society. 45 (5): 93–96. October 1961.
  • "Current Constitutional Issues: Reapportionment". Tennessee Law Review. 30 (1): 28–35. Fall 1962.
  • "The Supreme Court and the Federal System". California Law Review. 50 (5): 800–20. January 1962. doi:10.2307/3479125.
  • "The Supreme Court and the Federal System". New York State Bar Journal. 35 (2): 108–24. April 1963.
  • "Poverty and the Legal Profession". Illinois Bar Journal. 54 (1): 12–21. September 1965.
  • "The Constitutionality of the Proposed Voting Rights Act of 1965". Houston Law Review. 3 (1): 1–10. Spring 1965.
  • "Foreword: Constitutional Adjudication and the Promotion of Human Rights". Harvard Law Review. 80 (1): 91–122. November 1966.
  • "Labor and the Antitrust Laws: Pennington and Jewel Tea". Boston University Law Review. 46: 317–42. Summer 1966.
  • "Direct Action, Civil Disobedience, and the Constitution". Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 78: 105–19. January 1966.
  • "Chief Justice Earl Warren". Harvard Law Review. 83 (1): 1–5. November 1969.
  • "The Role of Congress in Constitutional Determinations". University of Cincinnati Law Review. 40 (2): 199–216. Summer 1971.
  • "Labor Law Preemption Revisited". Harvard Law Review. 85 (7): 1337–77. May 1972. doi:10.2307/1340014.
  • "More Learned Than Witty [Review of Learned Hand's Court by Marvin Schick]". Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review. 7 (2): 501–08. March 1972.
  • "Some Reflections on Possible Abuses of Governmental Power". The Record of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York. 28 (9): 811–27. December 1973.
  • "Executive Privilege". University of Pennsylvania Law Review. 122 (6): 1383–438. June 1974. doi:10.2307/3311504.
  • "The Lawyer's Public Responsibilities". Human Rights. 4 (1): 1–12. October 1974.
  • "Watergate and the U.S. Constitution". British Journal of Law and Society. 2 (1): 1–13. Summer 1975. doi:10.2307/1409781.
  • "The New Dimensions of Constitutional Adjudication". Washington Law Review. 51 (4): 791–829. October 1976.
  • "The Supreme Court and Abortion". The Human Life Review. 2 (4): 15–19. Fall 1976.
  • "Federalism and Individual Rights under the Burger Court". Northwestern University Law Review. 73 (1): 1–25. March 1978.
  • "The Lawyer's Independent Calling". Kentucky Law Journal. 67 (1): 5–26. 1978.
  • "The Effect of the Search for Equality upon Judicial Institutions". Washington University Law Quarterly. 1979 (3): 795–816. Summer 1979.
  • "Recent Developments in Federal Labor Law Preemption". Ohio State Law Journal. 41 (2): 277–300. 1980.
  • "Foreword: Freedom of Expression in the Burger Court". Harvard Law Review. 94 (1): 1–73. November 1980.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • "Review of Democracy and Distrust, a Theory of Judicial Review, by John Hart Ely". Harvard Law Review. 94 (3): 700–16. January 1981. doi:10.2307/1340684.
  • "Constitutional Issues in the Regulation of the Financing of Election Campaigns". Cleveland State Law Review. 31 (3): 395–418. 1982.
  • "Congress v. The Supreme Court". Mercer Law Review. 33 (3): 707–22. Spring 1982.
  • "Freedom of the Press". University of Illinois Law Review. 1983 (1): 3–21.
  • "The Role of the Supreme Court: Judicial Activism or Self-Restraint?". Maryland Law Review. 47 (1): 118–38. Fall 1987.
  • "Lawyer Independence". New York State Bar Journal. 62 (4): 10–15. May 1990.
  • "Lawyers and the Public Interest". Boston University Public Interest Law Journal. 1 (1): 5–14. Winter 1991.
  • "Ethics in Government: The Cornerstone of Public Trust". West Virginia Law Review. 94 (2): 281–300. Winter 1991.
  • "Recent Developments in Civil Rights Law". St. Mary's Law Journal. 22 (4): 815–27. 1991. (Presented at the Common Cause 20th Anniversary Celebration at St. Mary's School of Law, San Antonio, Texas, on November 3, 1990.)
  • "The Independence of the Judiciary: History and Purposes". University of Dayton Law Review. 21 (3): 565–84. Spring 1996.

Magazine pieces, addresses, broadcasts:

  • "After Taft-Hartley". Fortune. 39 (1): 65. January 1949.
  • "The Role of Law in Labor Disputes". Monthly Labor Review. 77 (10): 1113–17. October 1955. (Excerpted from article in Summer 1954 issue of Cornell Law Quarterly.)
  • "Strikes and the Public Interest: A Proposal for New Legislation". Atlantic. 205: 48–51. February 1960.
  • "Reflections on a Firestorm". Saturday Review/World: 12–14, 56. March 9, 1974.
  • "The University and Public Life". The New Leader. 57 (14): 9–12. July 8, 1974. (The annual Harvard Phi Beta Kappa Oration, delivered in June 1974.) The speech was reprinted in the Congressional Record at the request of Congressman Richard Bolling of Missouri: "The University and Public Life". Congressional Record. 14 (17): 23042–44. July 11, 1974 – via Google Books.
  • Partners in Law: Lord Scarman and Archibald Cox in Conversation (BBC, aired February 1980). Part of the conversation was included in The Listener, February 1980, pp. 165–66.
  • "Government, Politics and the Spirit of America: The Attacks upon Reform Legislation". Vital Speeches of the Day. 47 (3): 71. November 15, 1980.
  • "As Legal Scholars See It; Court, Congress, and the Human Life Statute". Christian Science Monitor. June 17, 1981.
  • "Iranian Arms and Contra Aid: Some Underlying Questions". Vital Speeches of the Day. 53 (17): 531. June 15, 1987.
  • "First Amendment". Society. 24 (1): 8–15. November 1986. doi:10.1007/bf02695930.


ملاحظات وهوامش

ملاحظات

الهامش

Bibliography

كتب:

  • Caplan, Lincoln (1987). The Tenth Justice: The Solicitor General and the Rule of Law. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0394555236.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Clayton, Cornell W. (1992). The Politics of Justice: The Attorney General and the Making of Legal Policy. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe Inc. ISBN 1563240181.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Doyle, James (1977). Not Above the Law: The Battles of Watergate Prosecutors Cox and Jaworski. New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-03192-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Emery, Fred (1994). Watergate: The Corruption of American Politics and the Fall of Richard Nixon. New York: Times Books. ISBN 0812923839.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Genovese, Michael A.; Morgan, Iwan W., eds. (2012). Watergate Remembered:The Legacy for American Politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230116504.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Gormley, Ken (1997). Archibald Cox: The Conscience of a Nation. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0201407132.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Kutler, Stanley I. (1990). The Wars of Watergate: The Last Crisis of Richard Nixon. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0394562348.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • McAdams, Alan K. (1964). Power and Politics in Labor Legislation. New York: Columbia University Press. LCCN 64011813.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Navasky, Victor S. (1971). Kennedy Justice. New York: Atheneum. LCCN 77145633.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • O'Brien, Michael (2005). John F. Kennedy: A Biography. New York: Thomas Dunne Books (an impression of St. Martin's Press).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Pierpaoli, Paul G., Jr. (1999). Truman and Korea: The Political Culture of the Early Cold War. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press. p. 214. ISBN 0826212069.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Richardson, Elliot (1976). The Creative Balance: Government, Politics, and the Individual in America's Third Century. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0030137063.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Schlesinger, Jr., Arthur M. (1978). Robert Kennedy and his Times. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. LCCN 78008469.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) (Two volumes, consecutively paginated.)
  • Schlesinger, Jr., Arthur M. (1965). A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. LCCN 65020218.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Sirica, John J. (1979). To Set the Record Straight: The Break-in, the Tapes, the Conspirators, the Pardon. New York: Norton. ISBN 0393012344.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Sorensen, Theodore C. (1965). Kennedy. New York: Harper & Row. LCCN 65014660.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

مقالات:

شهادات شفوية:

عن كوكس

  • Collins, Bruce (June 25, 1987). "Career of Archibald Cox". C-SPAN Broadcast. Retrieved March 15, 2016.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Hilbink, Thomas (2000). "Interview of Archibald Cox". New York: Columbia University Oral History Research Office. Retrieved March 1, 2016.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) Session 1 took place on June 19 and Session 2 the next day. The interviews may be heard using RealPlayer or VCL Media Player. Page citations are to the transcript (PDF).
  • Lester, Richard A. (November 25, 1964). "Archibald Cox Oral History Interview" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Transcript at John F. Kennedy Library in Boston. Retrieved March 1, 2016.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

غيرهم

قطع غير موقـّعة:


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وصلات خارجية

مناصب قانونية
سبقه
J. Lee Rankin
Solicitor General
1961–1965
تبعه
ثرگود مارشال