معركة بريطانيا

معركة بريطانيا
جزء من الحرب العالمية الثانية
Battle of britain air observer.jpg
التاريخ 10 يوليو – 31 أكتوبر 1940
المكان أجواء المملكة المتحدة
النتيجة انتصار حاسم لبريطانيا
[nb 1][2][nb 2][nb 3][5][6][nb 4][nb 5][9][10][nb 6][nb 7]
الأطراف المتخاصمة
 المملكة المتحدة[info 1]
23x15px كندا[nb 8]
ألمانيا النازية Germany
إيطاليا Italy{{#if:
القادة
المملكة المتحدة Hugh Dowding
المملكة المتحدة Keith Park
المملكة المتحدة Trafford Leigh-Mallory
المملكة المتحدة C. J. Quintin Brand
المملكة المتحدة Richard Saul
ألمانيا النازية Hermann Göring
ألمانيا النازية Albert Kesselring
ألمانيا النازية Hugo Sperrle
ألمانيا النازية Hans-Jürgen Stumpff
إيطاليا Rino Corso Fougier[16]
الحشود
1,963 serviceable aircraft[nb 9] 2,550 serviceable aircraft. [nb 10]

[nb 11]

الخسائر
544 aircrew killed[3][19][20]
422 aircrew wounded[21]
1,547 aircraft destroyed[nb 12]
2,698 aircrew killed[22]
967 captured
638 missing bodies identified by British Authorities[23]
1,887 aircraft destroyed[nb 13]
  1. ^ The RAF was the only sovereign Allied air force; the Polish Air Force was not given sovereignty until June 1944[13]
X4382, a late production Spitfire Mk I of 602 Squadron flown by P/O Osgood Hanbury, Westhampnett, September 1940

معركة بريطانيا (بالإنكليزية: The Battle of Britain)، معركة جوية من معارك الحرب العالمية الثانية والتي كان هدفها احتلال الجزيرة البريطانية. فبعد أن تمكن هتلر من احتلال كامل فرنسا لم يتبقى أمامه من أعداءه الأوربيين سوا المملكة المتحدة، والتي كان يفصلها عن جيش ألمانيا الجرار القنال الإنكليزي.

بداية المعركة

126 German aircraft or "Adolfs" were claimed by Polish pilots of 303 Squadron during the Battle.
Hermann Göring, the commander of the Luftwaffe
Hugo Sperrle

بدأت معركة بريطانيا في 10 يوليو 1940م عندما هاجمت 60 طائرة ألمانية السفن في القنال الإنجليزي. وفيما تبقى من الشهر، ظلّ سلاح الجو الألماني يختبر تحصينات سلاح الجو الملكي بهجمات متكررة على منطقة دوفر. وفي أغسطس، كثَّف سلاح الجو الألماني هجماته لتشمل كل القواعد الجوية في جنوبي إنجلترا. وفي15 أغسطس، هاجم تاينسايد في الشمال الشرقي لإنجلترا بـ 140 طائرة وشنَّ هجومًا قوامه 800 طائرة على قواعد سلاح الجو الملكي في جنوب إنجلترا. وقام سلاح الجو الملكي بـ 974 هجومًا على الطائرات المعادية، وخاض قتالاً جويًا رئيسيًا خمس مرات على الأقل. وبالغ كل طرف في تقدير خسائر الطرف الآخر، غير أن القيادة الألمانية العليا اعتقدت أن تحصينات ودفاعات القنال الإنجليزية قد أُضعفت بشكل مؤثر وفعال.

Adolf Galland, the charismatic and successful leader of III./JG 26, became Geschwaderkommodore of JG 26 on 22 August.


وفي سبتمبر أغارت طائرات سلاح الجو الألماني على لندن، وعلى مهابط الطائرات بوادي نهر التايمز. وبدأت 400 طائرة مقاتلة ألمانية في توجيه نيرانها على أحواض السفن، غير أن سلاح الجو الملكي أسقط 53 طائرة بالأسلحة المضادة للطائرات. وفي 15 سبتمبر، أغارت قوة ضاربة مكونة من 1,300 طائرة ألمانية، على شكل شوكة، على أحواض السفن بلندن ومنطقة ساوثامبتون. وفي السماء الصافية الخالية من الغيوم، امتدت المعركة فوق كافة الأجزاء الجنوبية من إنجلترا، واستمرت طوال اليوم. وفقدت القوات الجوية الملكية البريطانية 127 طائرة، بينما فقدت القوات الجوية الألمانية 56 طائرة.

وكان من النتائج النهائية لغارة 15 سبتمبر أن القيادة الألمانية العليا أدركت صعوبة تدمير تحصينات الدفاع الجوي البريطاني. وقد باءت محاولة ألمانية أخيرة بالفشل عندما ردَّ البريطانيون قوة مكونة من 850 طائرة على أعقابها في أواخر سبتمبر. ويرجع نجاح الدفاعات البريطانية إلى النوعية المتقدمة من الطائرات المقاتلة التي كانت تستخدمها ـ سبتفاير وهوركين. كما أن استخدام الرادار كان أيضًا فعالاً في إعطاء الإنذار المُبَكِّر عند اقتراب طائرات العدو، وتحديد مواقعها.

Chain Home radar cover, bases and group boundaries

وقد دفعت شجاعة وصلابة القوات الجوية الملكية خلال معركة بريطانيا السير ونستون تشرتشل إلى إطلاق ثنائه الشهير (لم يسبق في مجال الصراعات البشرية أن كان الكثيرون مدينين لقلة من الأفراد).

تحقيقاً لهذه الغاية في 2 آب/أغسطس أعد قائد سلاح الطيران الألماني غورينغ خطة لتوجيه ضربات شديدة من الجو لتدمير القوة الجوية البريطانية وذلك لكي ييفتح الطريق أمام الغزو البرمائي، وسميت عملية الغزو بـ (أسد البحر).

Hawker Hurricane I (R4118), Battle of Britain veteran, photographed in 2008.
X4474, a late production Mk I Spitfire of 19 Squadron, September 1940. 19 Squadron was part of the Duxford Wing.
A Bristol Blenheim Mk IV of 21 Squadron. The Blenheim bomber units of Bomber and Coastal Commands bore heavy casualties while undertaking a number of tasks during the Battle.

لو تحققت المساعي النازية في هذه المعركة لتمكنوا من إخضاع الإنكليز واحتلال بلادهم، ولكن سلاح الجو الملكي البريطاني حال دون بلوغ الألمان غايتهم، بل هيئ النصر في هذه المعركة جميع الظروف للحلفاء من أجل تمديد زمن الحرب والقضاء على قوات هتلر بالكامل بعد عدة سنوات.

German Heinkel He 111 bombers over the English Channel 1940

معارك القناة

A pair of 264 Squadron Defiants. (PS-V was shot down on 28 August 1940 over Kent by Bf 109s.)
Calais, September 1940. Göring giving a speech to pilots about the change in tactics to bomb the towns instead of the airfields.
Members of the London Auxiliary Firefighting Service.

معرض الصور

انظر أيضا

المصادر

الهوامش
  1. ^ Quoting Luftwaffe General Werner Kreipe: Terraine states the outcome as "decisive", Kreipe describes it as a strategic failure and turning point in the Second World War. Kreipe also states the "German Air Force was bled almost to death, and suffered losses that could never be made good throughout the course of the war". Quoting Dr Klee "The invasion and subjugation of Britain was made to depend on that battle, and its outcome therefore materially influenced the further course and fate of the war as a whole".[1]
  2. ^ Fighter Command's victory was decisive. Not only had it survived, it ended the battle stronger than it had ever been. On 6 July its operational strength stood at 1,259 pilots. On 2 November, the figure was 1,796, an increase of over 40%. It had also seriously mauled its assailant. In a lecture held in Berlin on 2 February 1944, the intelligence officer of KG 2, Hauptmann Otto Bechle, showed that from August to December 1940 German fighter strength declined by 30% and bomber strength by 25%.[3]
  3. ^ "The Battle was one of the great turning points in the Second World War - a defensive victory which saved the Island base and so, once Russia and the United States became involved, made future offensive victories possible."[4]
  4. ^ "As it was, the pragmatism of Dowding and his Fighter Command staff, the self-sacrifice of their pilots and the innovation of radar inflicted on Nazi Germany its first defeat. The legacy of that defeat would be long delayed in its effects; but the survival of an independent Britain which it assured was the event that most certainly determined the downfall of Hitler's Germany."[7]
  5. ^ "Given the ambiguous results of subsequent air campaigns against Germany. Japan, North Korea, and North Vietnam, it is probably fair to say that the Battle of Britain was the single most decisive air campaign in history."[8]
  6. ^ "A decisive battle has been defined as one in which a 'contrary event would have essentially varied the drama of the world in all its subsequent stages'. By this reckoning, the Battle of Britain was certainly decisive."[11]
  7. ^ Bungay quoting Drew Middleton in The Sky Suspended: In 1945 the Soviets asked Gerd von Rundstedt which battle of the war he considered to be most decisive. Expecting him to say "Stalingrad", he said "The Battle of Britain". The Soviets left immediately.[12]
  8. ^ 1 RCAF Squadron was not formed under Article XV because the unit was formed in Canada in 1937. When it was sent to the UK in 1940, it was manned by RCAF (including some American) officers, paid at Canadian pay rates, and its Canadian built Hurricanes were supplied by the Canadian government. In effect 1 RCAF Sqn. was a sovereign Canadian unit under the operational control of the RAF.[14][15] By contrast the Polish and Czech manned squadrons were formed as RAF units and fell completely within the RAF's administrative and operational structure.
  9. ^ 754 single-seat fighters, 149 two-seat fighters, 560 bombers and 500 coastal aircraft. The RAF fighter strength given is for 0900 1 July 1940, while bomber strength is for 11 July 1940.[17]
  10. ^ Figures taken from Quartermaster General 6th Battalion returns on 10 August 1940. According to these, the Luftwaffe deployed 3,358 aircraft against Britain, of which 2,550 were serviceable. The force was made up by 934 single-seat fighters, 289 two-seat fighters, 1,481 medium bombers, 327 dive-bombers, 195 reconnaissance and 93 coastal aircraft, including unserviceable aircraft. The number of serviceable aircraft amounted to 805 single-seat fighters, 224 two-seat fighters, 998 medium bombers, 261 dive-bombers, 151 reconnaissance and 80 coastal aircraft.[18]
  11. ^ The Luftwaffe possessed 4,074 aircraft, but not all of these were deployed against Britain. The force was made up of 1,107 single-seat fighters, 357 two-seat fighters, 1,380 medium bombers, 428 dive-bombers, 569 reconnaissance and 233 coastal aircraft, including unserviceable aircraft. The Luftwaffe air strength given is from the Quartermaster General 6th Battalion numbers for 29 June 1940.[17]
  12. ^ 1,023 fighters, 376 bombers and 148 aircraft from Coastal Command.[citation needed]
  13. ^ 873 fighters and 1,014 bombers destroyed.[3]
المراجع
  1. ^ Terraine 1985, p. 219.
  2. ^ Shulman 2004, p. 63.
  3. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Bungay_p._368
  4. ^ Hough and Richards 2007, p. xv.
  5. ^ Overy 2001, p. 267 in Addison and Crang's The Burning Blue quotes A.J.P Taylor "a true air war, even if on a small scale and had decisive strategic results".
  6. ^ Deighton 1980, p. 213.
  7. ^ Keegan 1997, p. 81.
  8. ^ Buell 2002, p. 83.
  9. ^ Terraine 1985, p. 181.
  10. ^ Shirer 1991, p. 769.
  11. ^ AJP Taylor 1974, p. 67.
  12. ^ Bungay 2000, p. 386.
  13. ^ Peszke 1980, p. 134.
  14. ^ "World War II: The RCAF Overseas." airforce.forces.gc.ca, 3 April 2009. Retrieved: 6 February 2010.
  15. ^ "No 1 (R.C.A.F.) Hurricane Squadron." the-battle-of-britain.co.uk. Retrieved: 6 February 2010.
  16. ^ Rino Corso Fougier
  17. ^ أ ب Bungay 2000, p. 107.
  18. ^ Wood and Dempster 2003, p. 318.
  19. ^ Ramsay 1989, pp. 251–297.
  20. ^ "Battle of Britain RAF and FAA role of honour." raf.mod.uk. Retrieved: 14 July 2008
  21. ^ Wood and Dempster 2003, p. 309.
  22. ^ Bungay 2000, p. 373.
  23. ^ Overy 2001, p. 113.

مراجع

عام

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السير الذاتية والسير الذاتية

الطائرات

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مراجع إضافية

كتب
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  • Ray, John Philip. The Battle of Britain: New Perspectives: Behind the Scenes of the Great Air War. London: Arms & Armour Press, 1994 (hardcover, ISBN 1-85409-229-4); London: Orion Publishing, 1996 (paperback, ISBN 1-85409-345-2).
  • Ray, John. "Britain Alone." WWII. London: The Orion Publishing Co., 2003. 62.Print.
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  • Wellum, Geoffrey. First Light: The Story of the Boy Who Became a Man in the War-Torn Skies Above Britain. New York: Viking Books, 2002. ISBN 0-670-91248-4 (hardcover); Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, 2003. ISBN 0-471-42627-X (hardcover); London: Penguin Books, 2003. ISBN 0-14-100814-8 (paperback).

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Categoryالتاريخ العسكري لإيطاليا في الحرب العالمية الثانية