تابغاچ

(تم التحويل من Tuoba)
تابغاچ
الصينية拓跋, 拓拔, 托跋, 禿髮,[1] 㩉拔[2]
ضابط من وِيْ الشمالية. تمثال لمقبرة، متحف لوويانگ.

تابغاچ أو Tuoba، وتُعرف أيضاً بإسم Taugast أو Tabgach ‏(Tabgaç)، كانت عشيرة من شيان‌بـِيْ في الصين القديمة.[3]

أسس التابغاچ وِيْ الشمالية (386–535) في دلتا النهر الأصفر and became increasingly sinicized. ونتيجة لذلك، من 496، اختفى اسم "تابغاچ Tuoba" بمرسوم من الامبراطور شياووِن من وِيْ الشمالية، who adopted the Chinese language surname of Yuan () instead. وثمة فرع ناجٍ من التابغاچ أسس دولة تويوهون قبل الخضوع كحكام تابعين لأسرة تانگ؛ ولاحقاً أسس شيا الغربية، التي اعتمد حكامها اللقب العائلي الصيني لي (). الأسرتان الحاكمتان وِيْ الغربية وژو الشمالية اللتان جاءتا إثر سقوط وِيْ الشمالية كانتا أيضاً من عرق تابغاچ.

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اللغة

ألكساندر ڤوڤين (2007) ميـِّز لغة التابغاچ كلغة منغولية.[4] However, Chen (2005)[5] argues that Tuoba (Tabγač) كانت لغة توركية.


التاريخ

Tuoba people and their neighbours, c. III CE
بقايا التابغاچ في Alxa League
بقايا التابغاچ في Alxa League

The distribution of the Xianbei people ranged from present day شمال شرق الصين to Mongolia, and the Tuoba were one of the largest clans among the western Xianbei, ranging from present day Shanxi province and westward and northwestward. They established the state of Dai from 310-376 CE[6] and ruled as the Northern Wei from 386-536. The Tuoba states of Dai and Northern Wei also claimed to possess the quality of earth in the Chinese Wu Xing theory. All the chieftains of the Tuoba were revered as emperors in the Book of Wei and the History of the Northern Dynasties. Some scholars suggest that the Tuoba were proto-Mongols (and spoke a proto-Mongolic language) or belonged to their own branch of Ural-Altaic language family,[7][8] although some also suggest that instead of being related to the Mongols, they were perhaps related to الشعوب التوركية (and spoke a proto-Turkic language).[9][10][11][12] In the opinion of Peter Boodberg, much of the Tuoba vocabulary was "essentially Turkish with a certain admixture of Mongolian elements".[13] On the other hand, Edwin Pulleyblank "concluded that it was Mongolian."[7] Chen Sanping observes that the Tuoba language "had both" elements.[14] On the other hand, Liu Xueyao stated that Tuobas may have had their own language which should not be assumed to be identical with any other known languages.[15] The Rourans considered that Tuoba and Rourans descended from common ancestors. [16] Also a historian of the Northern Wei noted that Rourans descended from Xianbei.[بحاجة لمصدر]

زعماء عشيرة تابغاچ 219-377 (كأمراء داي 315-377)

اسم بعد الممات الاسم الكامل فترة الحكم غيرهم
神元 Shényuán 拓拔力微 Tuòbá Lìwéi 219-277 اسم المعبد: 始祖 Shízǔ
章 Zhāng 拓拔悉鹿 Tuòbá Xīlù 277-286
平 Píng 拓拔綽 Tuòbá Chuò 286-293
思 Sī 拓拔弗 Tuòbá Fú 293-294
昭 Zhāo 拓拔祿官 Tuòbá Lùguān 294-307
桓 Huán 拓拔猗㐌 Tuòbá Yītuō 295-305
穆 Mù 拓拔猗盧 Tuòbá Yīlú 295-316
None 拓拔普根 Tuòbá Pǔgēn 316
None 拓拔 Tuòbá[17] 316
平文 Píngwén 拓跋鬱律 Tuòbá Yùlǜ 316-321
惠 Huì 拓拔賀傉 Tuòbá Hèrǔ 321-325
煬 Yáng 拓拔紇那 Tuòbá Hénǎ 325-329 and 335-337
烈 Liè 拓拔翳槐 Tuòbá Yìhuaí 329-335 and 337-338
昭成 Zhaōchéng 拓拔什翼健 Tuòbá Shíyìjiàn 338-377 Regnal name: 建國 Jiànguó

انظر أيضاً

المراجع

الهامش

  1. ^ Wang, Penglin (28 March 2018). Linguistic Mysteries of Ethnonyms in Inner Asia (in الإنجليزية). Lexington Books. ISBN 978-1-4985-3528-1.
  2. ^ "资治通鉴大辞典·上编". 㩉拔氏:(...) 鲜卑氏族之一。即“托跋氏”
  3. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 60–65. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
  4. ^ Vovin, Alexander. 2007. ‘Once again on the Tabγač language.’ Mongolian Studies XXIX: 191-206.
  5. ^ Chen, Sanping 2005. Turkic or Proto-Mongolian? A Note on the Tuoba Language. Central Asiatic Journal 49.2: 161-73.
  6. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
  7. ^ أ ب Holcombe 2001, p. 132.
  8. ^ Holcombe 2011, p. 65.
  9. ^ Kang-i Sun Chang,Stephen Owen (2010). The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 272.
  10. ^ Evelyn S. Rawski (2015). Early Modern China and Northeast Asia. p. 123.
  11. ^ Mote, Frederick W. (2003). Imperial China 900-1800. p. 170.
  12. ^ Charles O. Hucker (1975). China's Imperial Past: An Introduction to Chinese History and Culture. Stanford University Press. p. 136-137. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  13. ^ Charles Holcombe (2001). The Genesis of East Asia: 221 B.C. - A.D. 907. p. 132.
  14. ^ Holcombe 2001, p. 248
  15. ^ Liu Xueyao p. 83-86
  16. ^ Hyacinth (Bichurin), Collection of information on peoples lived in Central Asia in ancient times, 1950. p.209
  17. ^ No known given name survives.

ببليوگرافيا

  • Bazin, L. "Research of T'o-pa language (5th century AD)", T'oung Pao, 39/4-5, 1950 ["Recherches sur les parlers T'o-pa (5e siècle après J.C.)"] (In French) Subject: Toba Tatar language
  • Boodberg, P.A. "The Language of the T'o-pa Wei", Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 1, 1936
  • Clauson, G. "Turk, Mongol, Tungus", Asia Major, New Series, Vol. 8, Pt 1, 1960, pp. 117–118
  • Grousset, R. "The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia", Rutgers University Press, 1970, p. 57, 63-66, 557 Note 137, ISBN 0-8135-0627-1 [1]
  • Lee, Jen-der (2014), "Crime and Punishment: The Case of Liu Hui in the Wei Shu", in Swartz, Wendy, Early Medieval China: A Sourcebook, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-15987-6, https://books.google.com/books?id=ffEYBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA156 .
  • Pelliot, P.A. "L'Origine de T'ou-kiue; nom chinoise des Turks", T'oung Pao, 1915, p. 689
  • Pelliot, P.A. "L'Origine de T'ou-kiue; nom chinoise des Turks", Journal Asiatic, 1925, No 1, p. 254-255
  • Pelliot, P.A. "L'Origine de T'ou-kiue; nom chinoise des Turks", T'oung Pao, 1925–1926, pp. 79–93;
  • Zuev, Y.A. "Ethnic History Of Usuns", Works of Academy of Sciences Kazakh SSR, History, Archeology And Ethnography Institute, Alma-Ata, Vol. VIII, 1960, (In Russian)

قالب:Yuan Wei emperors