تيتشينو

(تم التحويل من Ticino)
جمهورية وكانتون تيتشينو
Repubblica e Cantone Ticino
Flag of Canton of Tessin.svg Wappen Tessin matt.svg
Map of Switzerland, location of تيتشينو highlighted
الأحداثيات 46°19′N 8°49′E / 46.317°N 8.817°E / 46.317; 8.817Coordinates: 46°19′N 8°49′E / 46.317°N 8.817°E / 46.317; 8.817
العاصمة بلينزونا
Largest city Lugano
عدد السكان 328٬580 [1]
 - الكثافة 117 /km² (303 /sq mi)
المساحة  2٬812 كم² (1٬086 م. م.)
أعلى نقطة 3,402 م (11,161 قدم) - Adula (Rheinwaldhorn)
أوطى نقطة 195 م (640 قدم) - Lake Maggiore
Joined 1803
الاختصار TI
اللغات الايطالية
التنفيذية Consiglio di Stato (5)
التشريعية Gran Consiglio (90)
البلديات 176 municipalities
Districts 8 distretti
الموقع الإلكتروين TI.ch

كانتون تيتشينو أو تيتشينو (النطق بالإيطالية: [tiˈtʃiːno]; بالألمانية: Tessin [teˈsiːn]; انظر أيضا أسماء أخرىهوكانتون يقع في أقصى جنوب سويسرا.وقد سمي على اسمنهر تيتشينو، وهو الكانتون الوحيد في سويسرا، الذي به لغة رسمية واحدة وهي اللغة الإيطالية.

Ticino ( /tˈn/), sometimes Tessin ( /tɛˈsn,_tɛˈsæ̃/), officially[2] the Republic and Canton of Ticino or less formally the Canton of Ticino,[أ] is one of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation. It is composed of eight districts and its capital city is Bellinzona. It is also traditionally divided into the Sopraceneri and the Sottoceneri, respectively north and south of Monte Ceneri. Red and blue are the colours of its flag.

Ticino is the southernmost canton of Switzerland. It is one of the three large southern Alpine cantons, along with Valais and the Grisons. However, unlike all other cantons, it lies almost entirely south of the Alps. Through the main crest of the Gotthard and adjacent mountain ranges, it borders the canton of Valais to the northwest, the canton of Uri to the north and the canton of Grisons to the northeast; the latter canton being also the only one to share some borders with Ticino at the level of the plains. The canton shares international borders with Italy as well, including a small Italian enclave.

Named after the Ticino, its longest river, it is the only canton where Italian is the sole official language and represents the bulk of the Italian-speaking area of Switzerland along with the southern parts of the Grisons. In قالب:Swiss populations data CH-TI, Ticino had a population of قالب:Swiss populations data CH-TI.قالب:Swiss populations data CH-TI The largest city is Lugano and the two other notable centres are Bellinzona and Locarno. The canton is a major tourist destination and is renowned for its distinct culture and gastronomy, and also for its warmer climate, especially around Lake Maggiore and Lake Lugano.

The land now occupied by the canton was annexed from Italian cities in the 15th century by various Swiss forces in the last transalpine campaigns of the Old Swiss Confederacy. In the Helvetic Republic, established 1798, it was divided between the two new cantons of Bellinzona and Lugano. The creation of the Swiss Confederation in 1803 saw these two cantons combine to form the modern canton of Ticino. Because of its unusual position, the canton relies on important infrastructures for connections with the rest of the country. The first major north-south railway link, the Gotthard Railway, opened in 1882. In 2016, the Gotthard Base Tunnel, the first flat route through the Alps, was inaugurated.

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أصل الاسم

The name Ticino was chosen for the newly established canton in 1803, after the river Ticino which flows through it from the Novena Pass to Lake Maggiore.[3]

Known as Ticinus in Roman times, the river appears on the Tabula Peutingeriana as Ticenum. Johann Kaspar Zeuss attributed Celtic origins to the name, tracing it to the Celtic tek, itself from an Indo-European root tak, meaning "melting, flowing".[4]

The official name of the canton is Republic and Canton of Ticino (بالايطالية: Repubblica e Cantone Ticino) and the two-letter code is TI. It is one of the four cantons of Switzerland officially referred to as "republics", along with Geneva, Neuchâtel and Jura.


التاريخ

The Castles of Bellinzona, guarding the access to the Gotthard and other Alpine passes since the Roman Era

In ancient times, the area of what is today Ticino was settled by the Lepontii, a Celtic tribe. Later, probably around the rule of Augustus, it became part of the Roman Empire. After the fall of the Western Empire, it was ruled by the Ostrogoths, the Lombards and the Franks. Around 1100 it was the centre of struggle between the free communes of Milan and Como: in the 14th century it was acquired by the Visconti, Dukes of Milan. In the fifteenth century the Swiss Confederates conquered the valleys south of the Alps in three separate conquests.

Between 1403 and 1422 some of these lands were already annexed by forces from the canton of Uri, but subsequently lost. Uri conquered the Leventina Valley in 1440.[5] In a second conquest Uri, Schwyz and Nidwalden gained the town of Bellinzona and the Riviera in 1500.[5] Some of the land and Bellinzona itself were previously annexed by Uri in 1419 but lost again in 1422. The third conquest was fought by troops from the entire Confederation (at that time constituted by 12 cantons). In 1512 Locarno, the Maggia Valley, Lugano and Mendrisio were annexed. Subsequently, the upper valley of the river Ticino, from the St. Gotthard to the town of Biasca (Leventina Valley) was part of Uri. The remaining territory (Baliaggi Ultramontani, Ennetbergische Vogteien, the Bailiwicks Beyond the Mountains) was administered by the Twelve Cantons. These districts were governed by bailiffs holding office for two years and purchasing it from the members of the League.[5]

الفرانك التيتيشيني، عملة تيتيشينو حتى إستبدلت بالفرنك السويسري عام 1850.

الجغرافيا

Hamlet of Brunescio on the left flank of Vallemaggia


الحكومة

Palace of the Ticinese government in Bellinzona


التقسيمات السياسية

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الأحياء

أحياء كانتون تيتشينو

ينقسم كانتون تيتشينو إلى 8 أحياء:

البلديات

يتكون كانتون تيتشينو من 176 بلدية (as of April 2009).


الديموغرافيا

A view of Lugano, the largest city in Ticino


الاقتصاد

المقر الرئيسي لسويسكم للاتصالات في بلينزونا، صممه ماريو بوته



النقل

The Gotthard Base Tunnel, currently under construction, will be the longest tunnel in the world[6]


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التعليم

الثقافة

انظر أيضا

المصادر

  1. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة BFS Tessin
  2. ^ Il Ticino in breve, ti.ch (official website of the canton). Retrieved 2021-01-25. ("Ticino is officially called the Republic and Canton of Ticino, its official language is Italian and its capital is Bellinzona")
  3. ^ "Lo scorrere del fiume, l'opera dell'uomo". Azienda elettrica ticinese. Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
  4. ^ Roberto Rampoldi (1901). "Intorno all'origine e al significato del nome Ticino". Internet Archive. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
  5. ^ أ ب ت Coolidge 1911, p. 934.
  6. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة alpt

بيبليوگرافيا

  • Marcello Sorce Keller,“Canton Ticino: una identità musicale?”, Cenobio, LII(2003), April-June, pp. 171-184; also later published in Bulletin - Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Musikethnologie und Gesellschaft für die Volksmusik in der Schweiz, October 2005, pp. 30-37.

وصلات خارجية

Ticino:Ticino
خطأ استشهاد: وسوم <ref> موجودة لمجموعة اسمها "lower-alpha"، ولكن لم يتم العثور على وسم <references group="lower-alpha"/>

الكلمات الدالة: