آنگر

(تم التحويل من Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres)
جان أوگوست دومنيك آنْگـْرْ
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
Ingres, Self-portrait.jpg
آنگر، بورتريه ذاتي في الرابعة والعشرين، 1804-، (عدل حوالي 1850)، زيت على كانفاس، 78 x 61 سم، Musée Condé.
وُلـِد(1780-08-24)أغسطس 24, 1780
مونتوبان، Tarn-et-Garonne، فرنسا
توفييناير 14, 1867(1867-01-14) (عن عمر 86 عاماً)
پاريس، فرنسا
مبعث الشهرةالرسم الزيتي، الرسم
أعمال بارزةلوي-فرانسوا برتان، 1832
الحمام التركي، 1862
الحركةالكلاسيكية الجديدة
نابليون على عرشه الإمبراطوري، 1806

جان أوگوست دومنيك آنْگـْرْ (Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres) عاش (مونتوبون 1780- باريس 1867) هو رسّام فرنسي. من تلاميذ الرسّام جاك لوي دافيد، تميز بصفاء رسوماته وحُسنها. تولى بعد دافيد، زعامة المدرسة الكلاسيكية في مواجهة المدرسة الرومانسية. ابتعد بعدها عن المبادئ التي وضعها أستاذه وأبدى ميولا لتغليب الأحاسيس في لوحاته، كما حاول أن يصل إلى الجمال المثالي في أعماله عن طريق إيجاد توافق بين الخطوط والألوان.

رَسَمَ بأسلوب عُرف بالكلاسيكية الحديثة. رسم إنجريس الكثير من الموضوعات التاريخية، والأسطورية. وعلى كل حال، فمن الجائز أنه نال الإعجاب الأكبر بسبب لوحاته. ويركز أسلوب إنجريس في الرسم على التركيبات المنتظمة والأسطح الناعمة المرسومة بالألوان، والرسم الدقيق، ويأتي موقع إنجريس وسط أفضل المصممين في تاريخ الرسم.

وبرغم أن إنجريس يُصنَّف مع أصحاب نظريات الكلاسيكية الحديثة، إلا أنه استخدم مجموعة متنوعة من الأساليب في رسمه. وعلى سبيل المثال، فإن لوحتـه حلم أوسيان تمثل عملاً فنيًّا رومانسيًّا ويظهر أسلوب الرسم بالألوان الزيتية هذا في الأسطـورة (الأسطـورة السلتية). وتعكس الكثير من أعمال إنجريس أثر واحد من الفنانين المأثورين لديه، وهو الفنان الإيطالي رفائيل الذي عاش في عصر النهضة.

ولد إنجريس في مونتو أبان، ودرس في باريس مع فنان الكلاسيكية الحديثة المشهور جاك لوي داڤيد مدة أربع سنوات، ثم درس وعمل في إيطاليا من عام 1806م إلى عام 1824م. والنقش الذي رسمه خلف مذبح الكنيسة وفوقه قسم لويس الثالث عشر، أكسب إنجريس الهتاف الأول باسمه عندما عرض في باريس في عام 1824م. ومن عام 1835م وحتى عام 1841م، تولى إنجريس إدارة الأكاديمية الفرنسية، وهي مدرسة فنون في روما دعمتها الحكومة الفرنسية.

الحمام التركي، 1862، زيت على كانفاس، القطر 108 سم، اللوڤر. خلاصة فكرة الشهوانية النسائية التي لازمت آنگر طوال حياته، تظهر في الصيغة الدائرية لأساتذته السابقين.

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الأسلوب

پورتريهات

While Ingres believed that history painting was the highest form of art, his modern reputation rests largely upon the exceptional quality of his portraits. By the time of his retrospective at the Exposition Universelle in 1855, an emerging consensus viewed his portrait paintings as his masterpieces.[1] Their consistently high quality belies Ingres's often-stated complaint that the demands of portraiture robbed him of time he could have spent painting historical subjects. Baudelaire called him "the sole man in France who truly makes portraits. The portraits of M. Bertin, M. Molé and Mme d'Haussonville are true portraits, that is, the ideal reconstruction of individuals....A good portrait seems to me always as a biography dramatized."[2] His most famous portrait is that of Louis-François Bertin, the chief editor of the Journal des Debats, which was widely admired when it was exhibited at the 1833 Salon. Ingres had originally planned to paint Bertin standing, but many hours of effort ended in a creative impasse before he decided on a seated pose. Édouard Manet described the resulting portrait as "The Buddha of the Bourgeoisie". The portrait quickly became a symbol of the rising economic and political power of Bertin's social class.[3]

For his female portraits, he often posed the subject after a classical statue; the famous portrait of the Comtesse de'Haussonville may have been modeled after a Roman statue called "Pudicity" ("modesty") in the Vatican collection.[4] Another trick that Ingres used was to paint the fabrics and details in the portraits with extreme precision and accuracy, but to idealize the face. The eye of the viewer would perceive the fabrics as realistic and would assume the face was equally true.[5] His portraits of women range from the warmly sensuous Madame de Senonnes (1814) to the realistic Mademoiselle Jeanne Gonin (1821), the Junoesque Marie-Clothilde-Inés de Foucauld, Madame Moitessier (portrayed standing and seated, 1851 and 1856), and the chilly Joséphine-Eléonore-Marie-Pauline de Galard de Brassac de Béarn, Princesse de Broglie (1853).

لوحات

Drawing was the foundation of Ingres's art. In the Ecole des Beaux-Arts he excelled at figure drawing, winning the top prizes. During his years in Rome and Florence, he made hundreds of drawings of family, friends, and visitors, many of them of very high portrait quality. He never began a painting without first resolving the drawing, usually with a long series of drawing in which he refined the composition. In the case of his large history paintings, each figure in the painting was the subject of numerous sketches and studies as he tried different poses. He demanded that his students at the Academy and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts perfect their drawing before anything else; he declared that a "thing well drawn is always a thing well painted".[6]

Mme Victor Baltard and Her Daughter, Paule, 1836, pencil on paper, 30.1 x 22.3 cm

His portrait drawings, of which about 450 are extant,[7] are today among his most admired works. While a disproportionate number of them date from his difficult early years in Italy, he continued to produce portrait drawings of his friends until the end of his life. Agnes Mongan has written of the portrait drawings:

Before his departure in the fall of 1806 from Paris for Rome, the familiar characteristics of his drawing style were well established, the delicate yet firm contour, the definite yet discreet distortions of form, the almost uncanny capacity to seize a likeness in the precise yet lively delineation of features.

The preferred materials were also already established: the sharply pointed graphite pencil on a smooth white paper. So familiar to us are both the materials and the manner that we forget how extraordinary they must have seemed at the time ... Ingres' manner of drawing was as new as the century. It was immediately recognized as expert and admirable. If his paintings were sternly criticized as "Gothic," no comparable criticism was leveled at his drawings.[8]

His student Raymond Balze described Ingres's working routine in executing his portrait drawings, each of which required four hours, as "an hour and a half in the morning, then two-and-a-half hours in the afternoon, he very rarely retouched it the next day. He often told me that he got the essence of the portrait while lunching with the model who, off guard, became more natural."[9] The resulting drawings, according to John Canaday, revealed the sitters' personalities by means so subtle—and so free of cruelty—that Ingres could "expose the vanities of a fop, a silly woman, or a windbag, in drawings that delighted them."[10]

Ingres drew his portrait drawings on wove paper, which provided a smooth surface very different from the ribbed surface of laid paper (which is, nevertheless, sometimes referred to today as "Ingres paper").[11] The early drawings are characterized by very taut contours drawn with sharply pointed graphite, while later drawings show freer lines and more emphatic modeling, drawn with a softer, blunter graphite.[12]

Drawings made in preparation for paintings, such as the many studies for The Martyrdom of St. Symphorian and The Golden Age, are more varied in size and treatment than are the portrait drawings. It was his usual practice to make many drawings of nude models, in search of the most eloquent gesture, before making another series of drawings for the draperies. In his early years he sometimes had his model pose behind a translucent veil that suppressed details and emphasized the arabesque.[13] He often used female models when testing poses for male figures, as he did in drawings for Jesus Among the Doctors.[14] Nude studies exist even for some of his commissioned portraits, but these were drawn using hired models.[15]

Ingres drew a number of landscape views while in Rome, but he painted only one pure landscape, the small tondo Raphael's Casino (although two other small landscape tondos are sometimes attributed to him).[16]


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وفاته

مقبرة آنگر. مدافن Père Lachaise, باريس، فرنسا

توفي بإلتهاب رئوي في 17 يناير 1867.

معرض

من أهم أعماله

اوداليسك مع جارية، 1842، زيت على كانڤاس، 76 x 105 سم، Walters Art Gallery, بلتيمور
روجيه يحرر أنجليكا، 1819،  زيت على كانڤاس، 147 x 190 سم، اللوڤر, يصور مشهد من رواية اورلاندو فوريوسو بقلم لودوڤيكو أريوستو
Mme Victor Baltard and Her Daughter, Paule, 1836, pencil on paper, 30.1 x 22.3 cm


  • الجارية الكبيرة (Grande Odalisque)، 1814 م.
  • أمنية لويس الثالث عشر (le Vœu de Louis XIII)، 1824 م، كاتدرائية مونتوبون،
  • الحمام التركي (le Bain turc)، 1859-1863 م، متحف اللوفر،
  • تمجيد هوميروس (l'Apothéose d'Homère)، 1827 م، متحف اللوفر،

انظر أيضًا

المصادر

  1. ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 512.
  2. ^ Charles Baudelaire, Le Salon de 1839
  3. ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, p. 300.
  4. ^ Russell, John. "Ingres's Portrait of a Lady is the Mirror of an Age", The New York Times, 24 November 1985. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  5. ^ Jover 2005.
  6. ^ King, Edward S. (1942). "Ingres as Classicist". The Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 20: 68–113.
  7. ^ Ribeiro 1999, p. 47.
  8. ^ Mongan and Naef 1967, p. xiii.
  9. ^ Arikha 1986, p. 6.
  10. ^ Canaday 1969, p. 814.
  11. ^ Mongan and Naef 1967, p. 244.
  12. ^ Mongan and Naef 1967, p. xxii.
  13. ^ Arikha 1986, p. 48.
  14. ^ Arikha 1986, p. 91.
  15. ^ Tinterow, Conisbee et al. 1999, pp. 432, 449.
  16. ^ Arikha 1986, p. 1.
مناصب ثقافية
سبقه
اوراس ڤرنيه
مدير
الأكاديمية الفرنسية في روما

1835-1840
تبعه
جان-ڤيكتور شنتس