الواقع المرير

(تم التحويل من Dystopia)

الواقع المرير أو الديستوپيا dystopia، هو مجتمع، عادة ما يكون خيالي، يتسم بصفات غير مرغوب فيها أو مفزعة. وهو عكس يوتوبيا أو المدينة الفاضلة. تظهر مثل هذه المجتمعات في الكثير من الأعمال الأدبية الخيالية، وخاصة القصص التي تدور في المستقبل التأملي. يتميز هذا النوع من المجتمعات بالتجرد من الإنسانية، [1] الحكومات المستبدة والكوارث البيئية،[2] أو الخصائص الأخرى المرتبطة بالانهيار الكارثي للمجتمع. يمكن أن تتنوع مشكلات هذا المجتمع ما بين المشكلات البيئية والسياسية والاجتماعية. برزت مجتمعات الواقع المرير في الكثير من الأنواع الأدبية وعادة ما تستخدم لإبراز القضايا الواقعية التي تمس المجتمع، السياسة، الدين، علم النفس، الرواحنية، أو التكنولويجا التي يمكن أن تتحول إلى واقع في المستقبل. لهذه الأسباب، فقد اتخذ التعبير عن الواقع المرير أشكال متعددة من التكهنات، مثل التلوث، الفقر، الانهيار الاجتماعي، القمع السياسي أو الاستبداد.

من أشهر الأعمال التي جسدت مجتمعات الواقع المرير 1984، العالم الجديد الشجاع، فهرنهايت 451، مباريات الجوع، عام التنين، وثورة 2053.


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أشهر أعمال الواقع المرير

  • نحن (1921) by Yevgeny Zamyatin. A satire of the newly-established Soviet Union, and of what the future of Russia might hold.
  • 1984 (1949) لجورج اويل، رواية شعبية وقد تكون أشهر أمثلة الواقع المرير في الثقافة المعاصرة.
  • A Clockwork Orange (1962) by Anthony Burgess - A satire portraying a future and dystopian Western society with—based on contemporary trends—a culture of extreme youth rebellion and violence: it explores the violent nature of humans, human free will to choose between good or evil, and the desolation of free will as a solution to evil.
  • The Terminator (1984) - A film that involves a humanoid machine (called a terminator) from the future attempting to assassinate Sarah Connor. Some scenes of the film show a post-apocalyptic future where a computer (called Skynet) has attempted to exterminate humanity by launching nuclear weapons (turns out, skynet only killed about 50% of the human population). Sarah Connor happens to be the mother of John Connor, who is the leader of the human resistance against Skynet and its machine armies in the future.
  • Terminator 2: Judgement Day (1991) - A very popular film that involves a more-advanced terminator robot trying to assassinate young John Connor. A reprogrammed terminator robot has also been sent back to protect John. Some scenes show a post-apocalyptic year 2029 where the human resistance has almost overthrown skynet. The future looks just like the future described in the first Terminator movie.
  • Virtual Light (1993) by William Gibson depicts a world (in 2006) where corporations dominate society, the middle class has gone, and wealthy, powerful elites dominate government. The book is set in a divided Southern California (SoCal) separated from the north of the former state (NoCal). As a sign of the collapse of the efficacy of democratic politics, the president is black.
  • The Giver (1993) by Lois Lowry depicts a future in which human society has largely rid itself of strife by minimizing the individual capacity for choice, love, and knowledge. The story develops around an adolescent boy, Jonas, who is tasked with preserving a secret cache of cultural memory.
  • Uglies (novel series) (2005-2007). Uglies follows the story of Tally Youngblood, a sixteen-year-old girl living in the 24th century. By this time in humanity's future, a new type of society has been formed after a disastrous oil-bug was released upon the planet that killed 98% of the human population and left many cities in ruins. The new society is composed of about one hundred small post-scarcity independently-run city states, spread out across the seven continents, which now have different coastlines due to modern-societies global warming. The new society holds three values at its core: Sustainability, Peace, and Equality. The new society promotes these values through the use of The Surge, a type of extreme cosmetic surgery that all citizens undergo at the median age of 16. The Surge transforms ordinary humans into paragons of beauty, right down to perfect facial symmetry. New Pretties are given access to life in New Pretty Town, the innermost part of the city where food, shelter, and entertainment are provided by the government free of charge. Within the post-Surge part of a persons life, everyone's common beauty inspires peace and equality among the citizens.
  • Unwind (2007) by Neal Shusterman - After a civil war in the near future, a compromise between Pro-life and Pro-choice was reached in the form of "The Bill of Life" and "unwinding", which allows parents of children between 13-18 to have their children's organs harvested, in what can only be described as a retroactive abortion.
  • Gone (novel series) (2008-Present). The series is centered around the fictional American town of Perdido Beach. Every human 15 and older vanishes, and the town and surrounding areas (later named the FAYZ) are encased within an impenetrable bubble. Many of the people and wildlife develop supernatural powers.
  • After the Fear[4] (2008) by Rosanne Rivers takes place following a financial collapse that has left Great Britain in so much debt they begin sacrificing lives during "demonstrations" to raise money to pay back those debts.
  • The Hunger Games (2008) by Suzanne Collins is set in a post-war North America called "Panem", which is composed of an extravagant capital and twelve poverty-stricken districts that each specialize in making a certain type of products for the capitol, for example, farming and mining. They have a totalitarian government that forces each district to send one boy and one girl between the ages of twelve and eighteen each year to fight to the death in the Hunger Games.
  • The Drowned World, Crash, and The Drought are all examples of the dysptopian fiction by well known English writer, J.G. Ballard. Human descent into chaos and humanity bringing about destruction by technology are common themes of his novels.
  • Terminator Salvation (2009) - a film, like its preceding terminator films, that describes a future (more specifically 2018) in which the human resistance fights to overthrow skynet. Unlike its preceding films, it contains no scenes of the past. The film takes place ONLY in the future.
  • "The Unit" (2009) by Swedish author Ninni Holmqvist - Single, childless adults aged 50 and over are deemed 'dispensable' and are sent to a home separate from society. At the home, they have relative freedom but must periodically undergo organ harvest in order to maintain the 'useful' childbearing/successful members of society.[5]
  • The book Worldshaker (2009) by Richard Harland is set in a neo‑Victorian ship where the rich live above in luxury and the poor workers toil below. The plot is much like the silent film classic Metropolis.
  • Divergent (2011) by Veronica Roth - In Beatrice Prior’s dystopian Chicago world, society is divided into five factions, each dedicated to the cultivation of a particular virtue—Candor (the honest), Abnegation (the selfless), Dauntless (the brave), Amity (the peaceful), and Erudite (the intelligent). On an appointed day of every year, all sixteen-year-olds must select the faction to which they will devote the rest of their lives. For Beatrice, the decision is between staying with her family and being who she really is—she cannot have both. So she makes a choice that surprises everyone, including herself.
  • Wool (2012) by Hugh Howey - The story of Wool takes place on a post-apocalyptic Earth. Humanity clings to survival in the Silos, a subterranean city extending hundreds of stories beneath the surface. The world outside has been destroyed, the view of it limited, talk of it forbidden. But there are always those who hope, who dream. These are the dangerous people, the residents who infect others with their optimism. Their punishment is simple. They are given the very thing they profess to want: They are allowed outside.


الخصائص الأدبية

الفناء

أعمال إعلامية متعلقة


انظر أيضاً

المصادر

  1. ^ خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  2. ^ خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  3. ^ Stableford, Brian (1993). "Dystopias". In John Clute & Peter Nicholls (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (2nd edition ed.). Orbit, London. pp. 360–362. ISBN 1-85723-124-4. 
  4. ^ http://www.amazon.com/After-Young-Adult-Dystopian-ebook/dp/B00B39MLN6/
  5. ^ http://www.bookslut.com/fiction/2009_08_014917.php

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