حرب الاستقلال التشيلية

(تم التحويل من Chilean War of Independence)
حرب الاستقلال التشيلية
جزء من حروب استقلال أمريكا الاسبانية
Collage independencia Chile.jpg
مع عقارب الساعة من أعلى اليسار: معركة إل روبلى، معركة رانكاگوا, Crossing of the Andes, First Government Junta, Battle of Maipú.
التاريخ1812–1826
الموقع
North, center and south of Chile, American Pacific Ocean ومناطق أخرى في أمريكا الاسبانية
النتيجة

انتصار تشيلي

الخصوم
Flag of Chile (1812-1814).svgتشيلي تشيلى
Flag of Argentina (1818).svg المقاطعات المتحدة
Mapuches المطالبين بالاستقلال

إسپانيا الامبراطورية الاسبانية

ماپوتشى مؤيدون للملكية
القادة والزعماء
Flag of Chile (1812-1814).svgتشيلي José Miguel Carrera
Flag of Chile (1812-1814).svgتشيلي برناردو أوهگنز
تشيلي Ramón Freire
تشيلي Manuel Blanco Encalada
تشيلي Thomas Cochrane
Flag of Argentina (1818).svg José de San Martín
Flag of Argentina (1818).svg Juan G. de las Heras
إسپانيا Antonio Pareja
إسپانيا Gabino Gaínza
إسپانيا Mariano Osorio
إسپانيا Francisco Marcó del Pont #
إسپانيا Vicente Benavide أُعدِم
إسپانيا Antonio de Quintanilla استسلم

قالب:Campaignbox Chilean War of Independence

حرب الاستقلال التشيلية كانت حرباً بين شعوب الكريولو التشيلية المطالبة بالاستقلال السياسي والاقتصادي عن اسبانيا والكريول الملكيين الداعمين لاستمرار الولاء لقبطانية تشيلى العامة وللبقاء في الامبراطورية الاسبانية.

تقليدياً، تؤرَّخ بداية الحرب بيوم 18 سبتمبر 1810. Depending on what terms are used to define its end, it lasted until 1821, when royalist forces were defeated by José de San Martín; or until 1826, when the last Spanish troops surrendered and the Chiloé Archipelago was incorporated to the Chilean republic. A declaration of independence was officially issued by Chile on February 12, 1818 and formally recognized by Spain in 1844, when full diplomatic relations were established.[1]

The Chilean War of Independence was part of the more aroused Spanish American wars of independence. Independence did not have unanimous support among Chileans, who were divided between independentists and royalists. What started as a political movement among elites against the colonial power, ended as a full-fledged civil war. Traditionally, the process is divided into three stages: the Patria Vieja, 1810–1814; the Reconquista, 1814–1817; and the Patria Nueva, 1817–1823.

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خلفية

At the start of 1808, the Captaincy General of Chile – one of the smallest and poorest colonies in the Spanish Empire – was under the administration of Luis Muñoz de Guzmán, an able, respected and well-liked Royal Governor. In May 1808 the overthrow of Charles IV and Ferdinand VII, their replacement by Joseph Bonaparte and the start of the Peninsular War plunged the empire into a state of agitation. In the meantime, Chile was facing its own internal political problems. Governor Guzmán had suddenly died in February of that year and the crown had not been able to appoint a new governor before the invasion. After a brief interim regency by Juan Rodríguez Ballesteros, and according to the succession law in place at the time, the position was laid claim to and assumed by the most senior military commander, who happened to be Brigadier Francisco García Carrasco.


پارتيا ڤييخا

الطغمة الأولى

جلسة افتتاح الطغمة الأولى


ديكتاتورية كاريرا


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الغزوات الاسبانية


ريكونكويستا

مانوِل رودريگز


پارتيا نوِڤا


الحرب حتى الموت

To further secure Chilean independence, San Martín launched a series of actions against armed bands in the mountains, consisting of assorted outlaws, royalists, and Indians who had taken advantage of the chaos of military expeditions and forced recruitments to pillage and sack the countryside. This time of irregular warfare was later called the Guerra a muerte (Total war) for its merciless tactics, as neither the guerillas nor the government soldiers took prisoners. Only after the band of Vicente Benavides was liquidated in 1822 was the region around Concepcion finally pacified.

إشهار ڤالديڤيا وتشيلوى

استقالة أوهگنز


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الوقع الاقتصادي

The independence wars in Chile (1810–1818) and Peru (1809–1824) had a negative impact on the Chilean wheat industry. Trade was disrupted and armies in Chile pillaged the countryside. The Guerra a muerte phase was particularly destructive and ended only to see a period of outlaw banditry (e.g. Pincheira brothers) occur until the late 1820s. Trade with Peru did not fully recover after the independence struggles.[2] Being isolated from Central Chile by hostile Mapuche-controlled territory and dependent upon seaborne trade with the port of Callao in Peru the city of Valdivia was particularly badly hit by the decline of the trade with Peru. The fortune of this city would not shift until the arrival of German settlers in the late 1840s.[3]

The Chilean ruling elite adopted a free trade policy already in 1811 with the "Decreto de Libre Comercio".[4] This allowed the country in the mid-19th century to exploit the opportunities that the California Gold Rush and the Australian gold rushes created for exporting wheat.[5][6]

انظر أيضاً

المراجع

  1. ^ "Chile". World Statesmen. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
  2. ^ (in إسپانية) Villalobos, Sergio; Silva, Osvaldo; Silva, Fernando and Estelle, Patricio. 1974. Historia De Chile. Editorial Universitaria, Chile. p 406-413.
  3. ^ Bernedo Pinto, Patricio (1999), "Los industriales alemanes de Valdivia, 1850-1914", Historia 32: 5–42, http://www.memoriachilena.cl/archivos2/pdfs/MC0001325.pdf 
  4. ^ (in إسپانية) Historia contemporánea de Chile III. La economía: mercados empresarios y trabajadores. 2002. Gabriel Salazar and Julio Pinto. p. 19-20.
  5. ^ (in إسپانية) La Hacienda (1830–1930). Memoria Chilena.
  6. ^ (in إسپانية) Villalobos, Sergio; Silva, Osvaldo; Silva, Fernando and Estelle, Patricio. 1974. Historia De Chile. Editorial Universitaria, Chile. p 481-485.

للاستزادة

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