أفعى مقرنة

(تم التحويل من Cerastes cerastes)

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أفعى مقرنة
Hornviper Cerastes cerastes.jpg
التصنيف العلمي edit
أصنوفة غير معروفة (أصلحها): Cerastes
Species: Template:Taxonomy/CerastesC. cerastes''
Binomial name
Template:Taxonomy/CerastesCerastes cerastes
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonyms
  • [Coluber] Cerastes Linnaeus, 1758
  • Coluber cornutus
    Linnaeus In Hasselquist, 1762
  • Cerastes cornutus Forskål, 1775
  • Vipera Cerastes
    Sonnini & Latreille, 1801
  • Cerastes Hasselquistii Gray, 1842
  • Cerastes Aegyptiacus
    A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron &
    A.H.A. Duméril, 1854
  • Echidna atricaudata A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854
  • Vipera Avicennae Jan, 1859
  • V[ipera]. (Echidna) Avicennae
    — Jan, 1863
  • V[ipera]. (Cerastes) cerastes
    — Jan, 1863
  • Cerastes cornutus Boulenger, 1891
  • Cerastes cerastes
    J. Anderson, 1899
  • Cerastes cornutus var. mutila
    Doumergue, 1901
  • Aspis cerastes Parker, 1938
  • Cerastes cerastes cerastes
    Leviton & S.C. Anderson, 1967
  • Cerastes cerastes karlhartli Sochurek, 1974
  • Cerastes cerastes karlhartli
    — Tiedemann & Häupl, 1980
  • [Cerastes cerastes] mutila
    — Le Berre, 1989
  • Cerastes cerastes Y. Werner,
    Le Verdier, Rosenman & Sivan, 1991
    [1]

Cerastes cerastes, commonly known as the Saharan horned viper[2] or the horned desert viper,[3] is a venomous species of viper native to the deserts of northern Africa and parts of the Middle East. It often is easily recognized by the presence of a pair of supraocular "horns", although hornless individuals do occur.[2] Three subspecies have been described.

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الوصف

The average total length (body and tail) is 30–60 cم (12–24 بوصة), with a maximum total length of 85 cم (33 بوصة). Females are larger than males.[2]


الانتشار والموئل

It is found in arid North Africa (Morocco, Mauritania and Mali, eastward through Algeria, Tunisia, Niger, Libya and Chad to Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia) through Sinai to the northern Negev. In the Arabian Peninsula, it occurs in Yemen, Kuwait, extreme southwestern Saudi Arabia and parts of the country in Qatar where it is sympatric with C. gasperettii. A report of this species being found in Lebanon is unlikely, according to Joger (1984).

Originally, the type locality was listed only as "Oriente." However, Flower (1933) proposed "Egypt" by way of clarification.[1]


السلوك

التكاثر

السم

C. cerastes, with "horns".
Arabian-horned viper without horns from desert of United Arab Emirates.


التصنيف

A number of subspecies have been described:[2]

Previously, C. gasperettii was also regarded as a subspecies of C. cerastes.[2]

انظر أيضاً


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المصادر

  1. ^ أ ب McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. (1999). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Washington, District of Columbia: Herpetologists' League. ISBN 1-893777-01-4.
  2. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Mallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G. (2003). True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company. ISBN 0-89464-877-2.
  3. ^ Mehrtens JM. (1987). Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.

قراءات إضافية

  • Boulenger GA. 1896. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume III., Containing the...Viperidæ. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, printers). xiv + 727 pp. + Plates I.- XXV. (Cerastes cornutus, pp. 502–503).
  • Calmette A. 1907. Les venins, les animaux venimeux et la serotherapie antivenimeuse. In: Bucherl W. editor. 1967. Venomous Animals and Their Venoms. Vol. I. Paris: Masson. 233 pp.
  • Mohamed AH, Kamel A, Ayobe MH. 1969. "Studies of phospholipase A and B activities of Egyptian snake venoms and a scorpion venom". Toxicon 6: 293–988.
  • Joger U. 1984. The Venomous Snakes of the Near and Middle East. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag. 175 pp.
  • Labib RS, Malim HY, Farag NW. 1979. "Fractionation of Cerastes cerastes and Cerastes vipera snake venoms by gel filtration and identification of some enzymatic and biological activities". Toxicon 17: 337–345.
  • Labib RS, Azab MH, Farag NW. 1981. "Effects of Cerastes cerastes (Egyptian sand viper) snake venoms on blood coagulation: separation of coagulant and anticoagulant factors and their correlation with arginineesterase protease activities". Toxicon 19: 85–94.
  • Labib RS, Azab ER, Farag NW. 1981. "Proteases of Cerastes cerastes and Cerastes vipera snake venoms". Toxicon 19: 73–83.
  • Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, diferentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio Decima, Reformata. Stockholm: L. Salvius. 824 pp. (Coluber cerastes, p. 217).
  • Schneemann M, Cathomas R, Laidlaw ST, El Nahas AM, Theakston RDG, Warrell DA. 2004. "Life-threatening envenoming by the Saharan horned viper (Cerastes cerastes) causing micro-angiopathic haemolysis, coagulopathy and acute renal failure: clinical cases and review". Association of Physicians. QJM 97 (11): 717–727. Full text at Oxford Journals. Accessed 9 March 2007.
  • Schnurrenburger H. 1959. "Observations on behavior in two Libyan species of viperine snake". Herpetologica 15:70-2.

وصلات خارجية

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