فلسطين السورية

(تم التحويل من ولاية فلسطين السورية)
مقاطعة فلسطين السورية
مقاطعة الامبراطورية الرومانية

 

135 – 390
موقع الشام
العاصمة أنطاكية
حقبة تاريخية العتيق الكلاسيكي
 - نهاية ثورة بار كوخبا 135
 - انحل 390
سبقها
تبعها
يهودا (مقاطعة رومانية)
سوريا (مقاطعة رومانية)
بادية الشام (مقاطعة رومانية)
فينيقيا (مقاطعة رومانية)
فلسطين الأولى
فلسطين الثانية
فلسطين الثالثة
اليوم جزء من

فلسطين السورية أو سيريا پالستينا Syria Palæstina، كانت امبراطورية رومانية بين عام 135 وحوالي عام 390.[1] تأسست بدمج سوريا الرومانية ويهوديا الرومانية، في أعقاب هزيمة ثورة بار كوخبا عام 135. بعد فترة وجيزة من عام 193، انقسمت المناطق السورية إلى بادية الشام في الشمال وفينيقيا في الجنوب، وتقلصت المقاطعة إلى يهوديا.


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خلفية

Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.[2] Following the partition of the Herodian kingdom into tetrarchies in 6 AD, it was gradually absorbed into Roman provinces, with Roman Syria annexing Iturea and Trachonitis.

The Roman province of Judea incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Israel. It was named after Herod Archelaus's Tetrarchy of Judea, but the Roman province encompassed a much larger territory.


اسم المناطق

التاريخ

التوحيد

After crushing the Bar Kokhba revolt, the Roman Emperor Hadrian applied the name Syria Palestina to the entire region that had formerly included Judea province. Hadrian probably chose a name that revived the ancient name of Philistia (Palestine), combining it with that of the neighboring province of Syria, in an attempt to suppress Jewish connection to the land, although the actual Philistines from which the name derives had disappeared from history during the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC).[3][4][5] The city of Aelia Capitolina was built by the emperor Hadrian on the ruins of Jerusalem. The capital of the enlarged province remained in Antiochia.

جزء من فسيفساء رومانية من أنطاكية (تفاصيل) القرن الثاني، متحف اللوڤر.
Roman mosaic from Antiochia (detail) 2nd century, Louvre

النزاع مع الساسانيين ونشأة الامبراطورية الپالميرية

نقش يصور تكريم يوليوس أورليوس زنوبيوس، والد الملكة زنوبيا، في پالميرا.

In 193, the province of Syria-Coele was split from Syria Palaestina. In the 3rd century, Syrians even reached for imperial power, with the Severan dynasty. Syria was of crucial strategic importance during the Crisis of the Third Century.


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اعادة التنظيم

الديانات

A number of events with far-reaching consequences took place, including religious schisms, such as Christianity branching off from Judaism.

العبادة الرومانية

After the Jewish–Roman wars (66–135), which Epiphanius believed the Cenacle survived,[6] the significance of Jerusalem to Christians entered a period of decline, Jerusalem having been temporarily converted to the pagan Aelia Capitolina, but interest resumed again with the pilgrimage of Helena (the mother of Constantine the Great) to the Holy Land c. 326–28.

يهودية المعبد الثاني

Second Temple Judaism is Judaism between the construction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, c. 515 BCE, and its destruction by the Romans in 70 CE. The development of the Hebrew Bible canon, the synagogue, Jewish apocalyptic expectations for the future, and Christianity, can all be traced to the Second Temple period.

Following the Jewish–Roman wars, many Jews left the country altogether for the Diaspora communities, and large numbers of prisoners of war were sold as slaves throughout the Empire. This changed the perception of Jerusalem as the center of faith and autonomous Jewish communities shifted from centralized religious authority into more dispersed one.

المسيحية المبكرة

The Romans destroyed the Jewish community of the Church in Jerusalem, which had existed since the time of Jesus.[7][التحقق مطلوب] Traditionally it is believed the Jerusalem Christians waited out the Jewish–Roman wars in Pella in the Decapolis.

The line of Jewish bishops in Jerusalem, which is claimed to have started with Jesus's brother James the Righteous as its first bishop, ceased to exist, within the Empire. Hans Kung in "Islam :Past Present and Future", suggests that the Jewish Christians sought refuge in Arabia and he quotes with approval Clemen et al.:[8]

"This produces the paradox of truly historic significance that while Jewish Christianity was swallowed up in the Christian church, it preserved itself in Islam".

Christianity was practiced in secret and the Hellenization of Palaestina continued under Septimius Severus (193–211 AD).[9]

الديموغرافيا

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انظر أيضاً

الهوامش

  1. ^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles (Summer 1998). "Palestine: History: 135–337: Syria Palaestina and the Tetrarchy". The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. University of South Dakota. Archived from the original on 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
  2. ^ Martin Sicker. Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 years of Roman-Judaean relations. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  3. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة H.H. Ben-Sasson, 1976, page 334
  4. ^ Ariel Lewin. The Archaeology of Ancient Judea and Palestine. Getty Publications, 2005 p. 33. "It seems clear that by choosing a seemingly neutral name—one juxtaposing that of a neighboring province with the revived name of an ancient geographical entity (Palestine), already known from the writings of Herodotus—Hadrian was intending to suppress any connection between the Jewish people and that land." ISBN 0-89236-800-4
  5. ^ The Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered by Peter Schäfer, ISBN 3-16-148076-7
  6. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Jerusalem (A.D. 71-1099): "Epiphanius (died 403) says..."
  7. ^ Whealey, J. (2008) "Eusebius and the Jewish Authors: His Citation Technique in an Apologetic Context" (Journal of Theological Studies; Vol 59: 359-362)
  8. ^ C. Clemen, T. Andrae and H.H. Schraeder, p. 342
  9. ^ Shahin, Mariam (2005) Palestine: a Guide. Interlink Books ISBN 1-56656-557-X, p. 7

المراجع

  • Nicole Belayche, "Foundation myths in Roman Palestine. Traditions and reworking", in Ton Derks, Nico Roymans (ed.), Ethnic Constructs in Antiquity: The Role of Power and Tradition (Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press, 2009) (Amsterdam Archaeological Studies, 13), 167-188.

وصلات خارجية