وصيفة

The Countess of Airlie, the lady-in-waiting of Queen Mary.

الوصيفة lady-in-waiting أو سيدة البلاط Court Lady هي female personal assistant at a court, royal or feudal, attending on a royal woman or a high-ranking noblewoman. Historically, in Europe, a lady-in-waiting was often a noblewoman from a family in "good society", but who was of lower rank than the woman on whom she attended. Although she may or may not have received compensation for the service she rendered, a lady-in-waiting was considered more of a companion to her mistress than a servant.

In other parts of the world outside Europe, the lady-in-waiting, often referred to as palace woman, was often in practice a servant or a slave rather than a high ranking woman, but still had about the same tasks, functioning as companion and secretary to her mistress. In courts where polygamy was practiced, a court lady was formally available to the monarch for sexual services, and she could become his wife or concubine.

Lady-in-waiting or court lady is often a generic term for women whose relative rank, title, and official functions varied, although such distinctions were also often honorary. A royal woman may or may not be free to select her ladies, and, even when she has such freedom, her choices are usually heavily influenced by the sovereign, her parents, her husband, or the sovereign's ministers (for example, in the Bedchamber crisis).

الواجبات

The duties of ladies-in-waiting varied from court to court, but functions historically discharged by ladies-in-waiting included proficiency in the etiquette, languages, and dances prevalent at court; secretarial tasks; reading correspondence to her mistress and writing on her behalf; embroidery, painting, horse riding, music making and participation in other queenly pastimes; wardrobe care; supervision of servants; keeping her mistress abreast of activities and personages at court, and discreetly relaying messages upon command.

حسب البلاط

الصين

Chinese Tang dynasty court ladies on A Palace Concert painting.


فرنسا

اليابان


انظر أيضاً

الهامش

المراجع

  • Akkerman, Nadine (2013), The Politics of Female Households: Ladies-In-Waiting Across Early Modern Europe [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Akkerman, Nadine; Houben, Birgit, The Politics of Female Households: Ladies-in-waiting across Early Modern Europe [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Almanach de Gotha: annuaire généalogique, diplomatique et statistique, 1859 [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Ladies-in-Waiting and Equerries, http://www.royal.gov.uk/TheRoyalHousehold/RoyalHouseholddepartments/ThePrivateSecretarysOffice/LadiesinWaitingandEquerries.aspx 
  • Chung, Priscilla Ching, Palace Women in the Northern Sung, pp. 960-1126 [استشهاد ناقص]
  •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Honour". دائرة المعارف البريطانية. 13 (eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 664.
  • Cruz, Anne J.; Stampino, Maria Galli, Early Modern Habsburg Women: Transnational Contexts, Cultural Conflicts, dynastic continuities [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, Women and the Family in Chinese History [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Duindam, Jeroen Frans Jozef, Vienna and Versailles: The Courts of Europe's Dynastic Rivals, 1550-1780 [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Kolk, Caroline zum (June 2009), "The Household of the Queen of France in the Sixteenth Century", The Court Historian 14 (1) [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Hsieh Bao Hua, Concubinage and Servitude in Late Imperial China [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Gosman, Martin; Macdonald, Alasdair James; Vanderjagt, Arie Johan, Princes and Princely Culture: 1450-1650 [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Hamer, Dianne (2011), Sophie: biografie van Sophie van Würtemberg (1818-1877)  — op basis van brieven en dagboken[استشهاد ناقص]
  • Kägler, Britta, Frauen am Münchener Hof (1651-1756) [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Kerkhoff, Jacqueline, Maria van Hongarije en haar hof 1505-1558: tot plichtsbetrachting uitverkoren [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Lebra, Takie Sugiyama, Above the Clouds: Status Culture of the Modern Japanese Nobility [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Lillehoj, Elizabeth, Art and Palace Politics in Early Modern Japan, 1580s-1680s [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Mansel, Philip, The Eagle in Splendour: Inside the Court of Napoleon [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Nagel, Susan (2008), Marie-Therese, Child of Terror: The Fate of Marie Antoinette's Daughter, NY: Bloomsbury: Macmillan, ISBN 1-59691-057-7 
  • Persson, Fabian (1999), Servants of Fortune. The Swedish Court between 1598 and 1721, Lund: Wallin & Dalholm, ISBN 91-628-3340-5 
  • Hauge, Yngvar; Egeberg, Nini (1960), Bogstad, 1773-1995, H. Aschehoug 
  • Walthall, Anne, Servants of the Dynasty: Palace Women in World History [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Kjølsen, Klaus (2010), Det Kongelige Danske Hof 1660-2000 [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Rowley, G. G., An Imperial Concubine's Tale: Scandal, Shipwreck, and Salvation in Seventeenth-Century Japan [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Rundquist, Angela (1989), Blått blod och liljevita händer: en etnologisk studie av aristokratiska kvinnor 1850-1900, Carlsson, Diss. Stockholm: Univ., Stockholm [استشهاد ناقص]
  • Seward, Desmond (2004), Eugénie. An empress and her empire, Stroud: Sutton, cop., ISBN 0-7509-2979-0 
  • Zedlitz-Trützschler, Robert (1924), Twelve Years at the Imperial German Court [استشهاد ناقص]


وصلات خارجية