خليج ها لونگ

هذا المقال يتضمن أسماءً أعجمية تتطلب حروفاً إضافية (پ چ ژ گ ڤ ڠ).
لمطالعة نسخة مبسطة، بدون حروف إضافية
Ha Long Bay
موقع تراث عالمي حسب اليونسكو
Halong ensemble (colour corrected).jpg
الموقعVietnam
السماتNatural: vii, viii
مراجع672
التدوين1994 (18 Session)
الامتدادات2000
الإحداثيات20°54′N 107°12′E / 20.9°N 107.2°E / 20.9; 107.2Coordinates: 20°54′N 107°12′E / 20.9°N 107.2°E / 20.9; 107.2
خليج ها لونگ is located in Vietnam
خليج ها لونگ
موقع خليج ها لونگ في Vietnam.
Chu nom.svg
هذه المقالة تحتوي على نص بالڤيتنامية. بدون دعم العرض المناصب، فقد ترى علامات استفهام، مربعات، أو رموز أخرى بدلاً من چو نوم، چو هان وچو Quốc Ngữ.

خليج ها لونگ (ڤيتنامية: Vịnh Hạ Long, أص‌د: [vînˀ hâːˀ lawŋm] ( استمع)؛ بالإنگليزية: Ha Long Bay) هو موقع تراث عالمي حسب اليونسكو ومقصد سياحي ذائع الصيت في مقاطعة كوانگ نن، ڤيتنام. ادارياً، يتبع الخليج مدينة ها لونگ، بلدة Cam Pha، وهو جزء من مركز ڤان دون. The bay features thousands of limestone karsts and isles in various shapes and sizes. Ha Long Bay is a center of a larger zone which includes Bai Tu Long Bay to the northeast, and Cat Ba Island to the southwest. These larger zones share a similar geological, geographical, geomorphological, climate, and cultural characters.

مساحة خليج ها لونگ تناهز 1,553 كم²، including 1,960–2,000 islets, most of which are limestone. The core of the bay has an area of 334 km2 with a high density of 775 islets.[1] The limestone in this bay has gone through 500 million years of formation in different conditions and environments. The evolution of the karst in this bay has taken 20 million years under the impact of the tropical wet climate.[2] The geo-diversity of the environment in the area has created biodiversity, including a tropical evergreen biosystem, oceanic and sea shore biosystem.[3] Ha Long Bay is home to 14 endemic floral species[4] and 60 endemic faunal species.[5]

Historical research surveys have shown the presence of prehistoric human beings in this area tens of thousands years ago. The successive ancient cultures are the Soi Nhu culture around 18,000–7000 BC, the Cai Beo culture 7000–5000 BC[6] and the Ha Long culture 5,000–3,500 years ago.[7] Ha Long Bay also marked important events in the history of Vietnam with many artifacts found in Bai Tho Mountain, Dau Go Cave, Bai Chay.[7]

500 years ago, Nguyen Trai praised the beauty of Ha Long Bay in his verse Lộ nhập Vân Đồn, in which he called it "rock wonder in the sky".[8] In 1962, the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism of North Vietnam listed Ha Long Bay in the National Relics and Landscapes publication.[9] In 1994, the core zone of Ha Long Bay was listed as a World Heritage Site according to Criterion VII, and listed for a second time according to Criterion VIII.[10]

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أصل الاسم

The name Ha Long means "descending dragon".


استعراض

Thien Cung grotto

The bay consists of a dense cluster of some 1,600[11] limestone monolithic islands each topped with thick jungle vegetation, rising spectacularly from the ocean. Several of the islands are hollow, with enormous caves. Hang Dau Go (Wooden stakes cave) is the largest grotto in the Ha Long area. French tourists visited in the late 19th century, and named the cave Grotte des Merveilles. Its three large chambers contain large numerous stalactites and stalagmites (as well as 19th-century French graffiti). There are two bigger islands, Tuan Chau and Cat Ba, that have permanent inhabitants, as well as tourist facilities including hotels and beaches. There are a number of beautiful beaches on the smaller islands.

Fisherman's house, Ha Long Bay, Vietnam

الجيولوجيا والجيومورفولوجيا

تاريخ التكتونيات

قيمة جيومورفولجيا الكارست

خليج ها لونگ


حكايات قديمة

سكان خليج ها لونگ طوّروا العديد من الحكايات لتشرح الأسماء المعطاة لمختلف الجزر والكهوف في الخليج.[12]

  • كهف داو گو (حرفياً: "the end of wooden bars" cave): these wooden bars in this cave are the remnants of sharped wooden columns built under the water level by the order of Trần Hưng Đạo commander in order to sink Mongolian invaders' ships in the 13th century.
  • Kim Quy cave (literally: "Golden Turtle" cave): it is told that the Golden Turtle swam toward the Eastern Sea (international name: South China Sea) after returning the holy sword which had assisted King Lê Thái Tổ in the combat against Ming invaders from China. Next, with the approval of the Sea King, Golden Turtle continued to fight against monsters in this marine area. The turtle became exhausted and died in a cave. Consequently, the cave was named after the Golden Turtle.
  • Con Coc islet (literally: Frog islet): is a frog- like isle. According to ancient tales, in a year of severe drought, a frog directed all animals to the Heaven and protested against the God. They demonstrated in favour of making rain. As a result, the God must accept the frog as his uncle. Since then, whenever frogs grind their teeth, the God has to pour water down the ground.
  • Hang Trong and Hang Trinh Nu (literally: Male cave and Virgin cave): the tale's about a beautiful woman had fallen in love with a fisherman whom must sail to the sea not so long after their engagement, the landlord saw this beautiful girl and captured her, but with her resistance, the landlord exiled the girl to remote island. After being left to starve, the girl was death and turned into a statue in which people called as Hang Trinh Nu (Virgin Cave). Her betrothed ran to the girl's place and found out what had happened, he turned into an islet which situated nearby and called as Hang Trong (Male Cave)[13]
پانوراما خليج ها لونگ، مأخوذة من جزيرة القرد، 2013


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انظر أيضاً


الهامش

  1. ^ Vịnh Hạ Long. Website chính thức của Ủy ban tổ chức Đại lễ Phật đản Liên Hiệp Quốc 2008 قالب:Vi
  2. ^ Giá trị địa chất – địa mạo của vịnh Hạ Long. Archived 2009-01-15 at the Wayback Machine. - Trang web chính thức của vịnh Hạ Long قالب:Vi
  3. ^ Giá trị đa dạng sinh học của vịnh Hạ Long. Archived 2009-01-15 at the Wayback Machine. - Trang web chính thức của vịnh Hạ Long قالب:Vi
  4. ^ Bảo tồn đa dạng sinh học vịnh Hạ Long" Archived 2009-02-20 at the Wayback Machine. - Tuổi Trẻ Online. Truy cập ngày 29 tháng 10 năm 2007, 17:26GMT قالب:Vi
  5. ^ Khu văn hóa và lịch sử các đảo vịnh Hạ Long.[dead link] - Website Trường Đại học Khoa học Tự Nhiên Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh قالب:Vi
  6. ^ Giá trị lịch sử - văn hóa của vịnh Hạ Long. Archived 2009-02-20 at the Wayback Machine. - Trang web chính thức của vịnh Hạ Long قالب:Vi
  7. ^ أ ب "Có một nền văn hóa Hạ Long" Archived 2009-02-20 at the Wayback Machine. - Tuổi Trẻ Online قالب:Vi
  8. ^ "Từ hơn 500 năm trước, vịnh Hạ Long đã được tôn vinh là kỳ quan" - Tuổi Trẻ Online قالب:Vi
  9. ^ Vị trí địa lý, khí hậu của vịnh Hạ Long. Archived 2009-02-16 at the Wayback Machine. - Trang web chính thức của vịnh Hạ Long قالب:Vi
  10. ^ "Hạ Long Bay". Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  11. ^ "Report of Twenty-fourth session of the World Heritage Committee, Cairns, Australia". UNESCO World Heritage Committee. 27 November 2000.
  12. ^ "Ha Long bay- the beauty from tales and history". www.daidoanket.vn. Retrieved 2011-11-12.
  13. ^ https://www.halong-bay-cruise.com

وصلات خارجية

قالب:New7Wonders of Nature