جون ماكدونالد

The Right Honourable
Sir John A. Macdonald
PC GCB KCMG QC
John A Macdonald (ca. 1875).jpg
1st Prime Minister of Canada
في المنصب
1 July 1867 – 5 November 1873
العاهل Victoria
الحاكم العام The Viscount Monck
The Lord Lisgar
The Earl of Dufferin
سبقه Office established
(see Canadian Confederation)
خلفه Alexander Mackenzie
في المنصب
17 October 1878 – 6 June 1891
العاهل Victoria
الحاكم العام The Earl of Dufferin
Marquess of Lorne
The Marquess of Lansdowne
The Lord Stanley of Preston
سبقه Alexander Mackenzie
خلفه John Abbott
Joint-Premier of the Province of Canada
Premier of Canada West
في المنصب
24 May 1856 – 2 August 1858
العاهل Victoria
سبقه Allan MacNab
خلفه George Brown
في المنصب
6 August 1858 – 24 May 1862
العاهل Victoria
سبقه George Brown
خلفه John Sandfield Macdonald
في المنصب
30 May 1864 – 30 June 1867
العاهل Victoria
سبقه John Sandfield Macdonald
خلفه John Sandfield Macdonald
(as Premier of Ontario)
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد John Alexander Macdonald
10 or 11 January 1815[أ][ب]
Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Scotland
توفي 6 يونيو 1891(1891-06-06) (عن عمر 76 عاماً)
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
المدفن Cataraqui Cemetery
الحزب Conservative
انتماءات سياسية
أخرى
Upper Canada Tory (1843–1867)
Great Coalition (1864–1867)
Liberal-Conservative (1867–1873)
الزوج Isabella Clark (ز. 1843; و. 1857)
Agnes Bernard (ز. 1867)
الأنجال 3 (including Hugh John Macdonald)
التعليم Apprenticeship
المهنة Lawyer
التوقيع
الخدمة العسكرية
الكنية "Old Tomorrow"
"The Old Chieftain"
الولاء British Empire / Upper Canada
الخدمة/الفرع Loyalist militia
سنوات الخدمة 1837
الرتبة Private
المعارك/الحروب Rebellions of 1837–1838
قالب:Father of Confederation footnote



السير جون ماكدونالد (11 January 1815 – 6 June 1891) هو أول رئيس وزراء لكندا تولى رئاسة الوزراء مرتين الأولى في يوليو من العام 1867 حتى نوفمبر 1873 (حيث اتحدت أربع مقاطعات وهي أونتاريو وكويبك ونوفا سكوشيا ونيو برونزويك لتكوين الدولة الكندية. وأصبح السير جون إيه ماكدونالد أول رئيس للوزراء في البلاد ثم اخذت باقي المقاطعات والأقاليم تنضم إلى كندا في السنوات التالية). وعاد وتولى رئاسة الوزراء لفترة ثانيه من أكتوبر 1878 إلى وفاته عام 1891.

ولد في أسكتلندا عام 1815 وهاجر إلى كندا مع والديه وكان يبلغ من العمر خمسة اعوام.

ولا يزال السير جون ماكدونالد يحظى باحترام الكنديين على الرغم من مرور وقت طويل على رحيله

جون ماكدونالد


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كونفدرالية كندا 1864–1867

The Quebec Conference. Macdonald seated, fourth from left

As his government had fallen again, Macdonald approached the new governor general, Lord Monck, and obtained a dissolution. Before he could act on it, he was approached by Brown through intermediaries; the Grit leader felt that the crisis gave the parties the opportunity to join together for constitutional reform. Brown had led a parliamentary committee on confederation among the British North American colonies, which had reported back just before the Taché-Macdonald government fell.[1] Brown was more interested in representation by population; Macdonald's priority was a federation that the other colonies could join. The two compromised and agreed that the new government would support the "federative principle"—a conveniently elastic phrase. The discussions were not public knowledge and Macdonald stunned the Assembly by announcing that the dissolution was being postponed because of progress in negotiations with Brown—the two men were not only political rivals, but were known to hate each other.[2]



رئيس وزراء كندا

Canada's economic growth was quite slow at only 1% annually 1867–1896. Canada verged on stagnation so many residents emigrated to the United States, where growth was much more rapid. Macdonald's solution was to build the transcontinental railroad to stimulate growth, and to implement a "National Policy" of high tariffs that would protect the small Canadian firms from American competition.[3]

أول أغلبية، 1867–1871

خط زمني لتطور حدود كندا منذ 1867

Macdonald and his government faced immediate problems upon formation of the new country. Much work remained to do in creating a federal government. Nova Scotia was already threatening to withdraw from the union; the Intercolonial Railway, which would both conciliate the Maritimes and bind them closer to the rest of Canada, was not yet built. Anglo-American relations were in a poor state, and Canadian foreign relations were matters handled from London. The withdrawal of the Americans in 1866 from the Reciprocity Treaty had increased tariffs on Canadian goods in US markets.[4] Much of present-day Canada remained outside confederation—in addition to the separate colonies of Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, and British Columbia, which remained governed by the British, vast areas in the north and west belonged to the British and to the Hudson's Bay Company.[5] American and British opinion was that the experiment of Confederation would quickly unravel, and the nascent nation absorbed by the United States.[6]


ثاني أغلبية وفضيحة الهادي، 1872–1873

In the run-up to the 1872 election, Macdonald had yet to formulate a railway policy, or to devise the loan guarantees that would be needed to secure the construction. During the previous year, Macdonald had met with potential railway financiers such as Hugh Allan and considerable financial discussion took place. Nevertheless, the greatest political problem Macdonald faced was the Washington treaty, which had not yet been debated in Parliament.[7]


"Whither are we drifting?" Macdonald is shown triumphant at obtaining a prorogation, but is trampling a weeping Canada and apparently drunk with bottle in pocket in this August 1873 cartoon by John Wilson Bengough. Macdonald is depicted claiming clean hands, but with "Send me another $10,000" written on his palm.


I leave it with this House with every confidence. I am equal to either fortune. I can see past the decision of this House either for or against me, but whether it be against me or for me, I know, and it is no vain boast to say so, for even my enemies will admit that I am no boaster, that there does not exist in Canada a man who has given more of his time, more of his heart, more of his wealth, or more of his intellect and power, as it may be, for the good of this Dominion of Canada.[8]


المعارضة، 1873–1878

In this Bengough cartoon, Macdonald (centre, ankles crossed) rides the elephant of the National Policy into power in the 1878 election, trampling the Liberals underfoot. Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie is also being strangled by the elephant's trunk.



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ثالث ورابع أغلبية، 1878–1887

Macdonald in November 1883, age 68

Part of the National Policy was implemented in the budget presented in February 1879. Under that budget, Canada became a high-tariff nation like the United States and Germany. The tariffs were designed to protect and build Canadian industry—finished textiles received a tariff of 34%, but the machinery to make them entered Canada free.[9] Macdonald continued to fight for higher tariffs for the remainder of his life.[10]

Macdonald uses his parliamentary majority to roll to victory over Liberal leader Edward Blake and his party in this 1884 cartoon by John Wilson Bengough


Protestants demanded Riel be executed; Catholics wanted him to live. The decision for execution was a major political blunder that permanently alienated Francophones.



خامس وسادس أغلبية، 1887–1891؛ والوفاة

A Conservative election poster from 1891


Sir John A. Macdonald lying in state in the Senate chamber, 8 June 1891
Funeral of Sir John A. Macdonald in Cataraqui Cemetery, Kingston, Ontario
Grave of Sir John A. Macdonald in Cataraqui Cemetery, Kingston, Ontario


Wilfrid Laurier paid tribute to Macdonald in the House of Commons:

In fact the place of Sir John A. Macdonald in this country was so large and so absorbing that it is almost impossible to conceive that the politics of this country, the fate of this country, will continue without him. His loss overwhelms us.[11]



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الذكرى والنصب التذكارية

Memorial to John A MacDonald, St David's Church, Ingram Street, گلاسگو
طابع بريد كندي يكرم مكدونالد، 1927


الدرجات الفخرية

Macdonald was awarded the following honorary degrees:

Location Date School Degree
 اونتاريو 1863 Queen's University Doctor of Laws (LL.D)[12]
 إنگلترة 1865 University of Oxford Doctorate[13]
 اونتاريو 1889 University of Toronto Doctor of Laws (LL.D)[14]

References

Notes

  1. ^ The official birth record for John Alexander Mcdonald, proving the original spelling of the surname and official date of birth can be found in the National Records of Scotland or online at ScotlandsPeople using the following details:Parish: Glasgow, Parish Number: 644/1, Ref: 210 201, Parents/ Other Details: FR2265 (FR2265).
  2. ^ Although 10 January is the official date recorded in the General Register Office in Edinburgh, 11 January is the day Macdonald and those who commemorate him have celebrated his birthday. See Gwyn 2007, p. 8.

Citations

  1. ^ Gwyn 2007, pp. 286–288.
  2. ^ Gwyn 2007, pp. 288–289.
  3. ^ Edgar McInnis, Canada: A political and social history (1982) pp 404–10.
  4. ^ Swainson 1989, pp. 80–81.
  5. ^ Swainson 1989, pp. 81–82.
  6. ^ Gwyn 2011, p. 3.
  7. ^ Creighton 1955, pp. 112–113.
  8. ^ Waite 1975, pp. 105–106.
  9. ^ Gwyn 2011, p. 307.
  10. ^ Swainson 1989, p. 115-16.
  11. ^ Swainson 1989, pp. 149–152.
  12. ^ http://www.queensu.ca/registrar/sites/webpublish.queensu.ca.uregwww/files/files/HDrecipients.pdf
  13. ^ http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/macdonald_john_alexander_12E.html
  14. ^ http://www.governingcouncil.utoronto.ca/Assets/Governing+Council+Digital+Assets/Boards+and+Committees/Committee+for+Honorary+Degrees/degreerecipients1850tillnow.pdf

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Further reading

المقالة الرئيسية: List of books about Prime Ministers of Canada
  • Waite, P. B. (1975). Macdonald: His Life and World. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited. ISBN 978-0-07-082301-3. 

Historiography

  • Dutil, Patrice and Roger Hall, eds. (2014). Macdonald at 200: New Reflections and Legacies. Toronto: Dundurn. , essays by scholars
  • Symons, Thomas H.B. "Macdonald's qualities as leader, builder withstand welcome wave of critiques," Canadian Issues (May 2015) online

مصادر رئيسية

  • Gibson, Sarah Katherine and Arthur Milnes, eds. Canada Transformed: The Speeches of Sir John A. Macdonald: A Bicentennial Celebration (McClelland and Stewart, 2014) xlvi + 486pp; mostly drawn from debates in Parliament
  • Johnson, J.K. (1969). Affectionately Yours: The Letters of Sir John A. Macdonald and His Family. Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada, Ltd. 

وصلات خارجية

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مناصب سياسية
سبقه
Robert Baldwin
Attorney General of Canada West
1854–1862
تبعه
John Sandfield Macdonald
سبقه
John Sandfield Macdonald
Attorney General of Canada West
1864–1867
تبعه
Replaced by Attorney General of Ontario and Attorney General of Canada
سبقه
Sir Allan Napier MacNab
Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada – Canada West
1856 – 1858
تبعه
George Brown
سبقه
George Brown
Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada – Canada West
1858 – 1867
تبعه
himself as Prime Minister of Canada and Sir John Sandfield Macdonald as Premier of Ontario
سبقه
none
Leader of the Conservative Party
1867–1891
تبعه
Sir John J.C. Abbott
Prime Minister of Canada
1867–1873
تبعه
Alexander Mackenzie
Minister of Justice and Attorney General
1867–1873
تبعه
Antoine Dorion
سبقه
Alexander Mackenzie
Leader of the Opposition
1873–1878
تبعه
Alexander Mackenzie
Prime Minister of Canada
1878–1891
تبعه
Sir John J.C. Abbott
سبقه
David Mills
Minister of the Interior
1878–1883
تبعه
Edgar Dewdney
Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs
1878–1887
تبعه
Thomas White
سبقه
Archibald Woodbury McLelan
President of the Privy Council
1883 – 1889
تبعه
Charles Carrol Colby
سبقه
Thomas White
Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs
1888
تبعه
Edgar Dewdney
Minister of the Interior
1888
سبقه
John Henry Pope
Minister of Railways and Canals
1889 – 1891
تبعه
Mackenzie Bowell (acting)
برلمان كندا
سبقه
none
Member of Parliament for Kingston
1867 – 1878
تبعه
Alexander Gunn
سبقه
Joseph Ryan
Member of Parliament for Marquette
1878
تبعه
Joseph Ryan
سبقه
Francis James Roscoe
Member of Parliament for Victoria
1878 – 1882
تبعه
E.C. Baker
سبقه
Edmund Hooper
Member of Parliament for Lennox
1882
تبعه
David W. Allison
سبقه
John Rochester
Member of Parliament for Carleton
1882 – 1887
تبعه
George Dickinson
سبقه
Alexander Gunn
Member of Parliament for Kingston
1887 – 1891
تبعه
James H. Metcalfe

قالب:Canadian Conservative Leaders قالب:CA-Ministers of Justice and Attorneys General قالب:CA-Ministers-of-the-Interior قالب:CA-Ministers of Transport قالب:CA-Superintendents-General of Indian Affairs قالب:CA-Presidents of the Privy Council قالب:Canadian federal opposition leaders قالب:Ontario Attorneys General