ثورة الكـُمونـِروس

(تم التحويل من ثورة الكومونيروس)
Revolt of the Comuneros
Two men and a priest stand in the center, overseeing the proceedings. A dead body lies on the ground; a man triumphantly lifts up his severed head in the background. A bearded man with hands bound is being brought forward to be executed next.
Execution of the Comuneros of Castile, by Antonio Gisbert (1860)
التاريخ April 16, 1520 – October 25, 15211
الموقع Crown of Castile
النتيجة Decisive royalist victory
المتحاربون
Comuneros rebels Royalist Castilians
القادة والزعماء
Juan de Padilla,
Juan Bravo,
Francisco Maldonado,
Antonio de Acuña,
Pedro Girón,
María Pacheco
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor;
Adrian of Utrecht, regent of Castile;
Íñigo Fernández, Constable of Castile;
Fadrique Enríquez, Admiral of Castile
1February 3, 1522 is also used as an end date; see 1522 revolt.
A tall stone building, topped with a cross.
San Pablo Church in Valladolid, seat of a Cortes held in 1518. Protests emerged when the Flemish adviser Jean de Sauvage was named its president, presaging later troubles.

ثورة_الكـُمونـِروس (بالاسپانية: Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla, "حرب مدن قشتالة") كانت انتفاضة قام بها أهالي قشتالة على حكم شارل الخامس وادارته بين 1520 و 1521. وفي أوجها، سيطر المتمردون على قلب قشتالة، فحكموا مدن بلد الوليد، توردسياس، وطليطلة.

The revolt occurred in the wake of political instability in the Crown of Castile after the death of Queen Isabella I in 1504. Joanna the Mad, Isabella's daughter, inherited the throne with her Burgundian husband King Philip I. However, Philip died two years into their reign, and their son Charles was only six years old. Due to his youth and Joanna's mental instability, Castile was ruled by the nobles and her father, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, as a regency. After Ferdinand's death in 1516, the sixteen-year-old Charles was proclaimed king of both Castile and Aragon. Charles had been raised in the Netherlands with little knowledge of Castilian. He arrived in Spain in October 1517 accompanied by a large retinue of Flemish nobles and clerics. These factors resulted in mistrust between the new king and the Castilian social elites, who could see the threat to their power and status.


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الأصول

A young Charles V.
A 1516 portrait of King Charles I of Castile and Aragon, later Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, by Bernard van Orley. Charles would rule one of the largest empires in European history—through his father Philip, Burgundy and the Netherlands; through his mother Joanna, Castile, Aragon, and Naples; and through his grandfather Maximilian and his election in 1519 as Holy Roman Emperor, Germany, Austria, and much of Northern Italy.


تمدد الثورة

فرض الحظر على سگوڤيا

A stone aqueduct bordered by a modern road and smaller houses.
Segovia, the city of the first armed clash between the comuneros and the royalists


حرق مدينا دل كامپو


طغمة توردسياس

A lady with a long, thin face wearing red robes and a hood in the style of a nun.
Joanna the Mad, officially the Queen and co-regent of Castile with her son Charles, actually had no power whatsoever


نظاق التمرد

Bronze sculpture of Juan de Padilla in Toledo


Map of Spain with cities colored by affiliation; see text for details.
The rebels were strongest in the central plateau of Spain; the royalists controlled Andalusia in the South and Galicia in the North. Aragon was distracted by the Revolt of the Brotherhoods, and Navarre was occupied by Castilian troops who guarded against the return of the Navarrese king and the French. Rebel cities are in purple; Royalist cities are in green; cities with both elements present or that vacillated are in both colors.


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الرد الشعبي والحكومي

A middle-aged man in red and white clerical vestment.
Adrian of Utrecht, future Pope Adrian VI, was considered an effective regent despite the difficult situation. He spearheaded the recruitment of nobility to the royalist side, and two Castilian co-regents were appointed to lessen the appearance of foreign control.


معركة توردسياس

النزاع على الزعامة

Map of army maneuvers.  The comunero army heads north to Villabrágima, then west, leaving the way open for the royal army to march south from Medina de Rioseco to Tordesillas.
The royal army, commanded by the Constable of Castile's son, the Count of Haro, consisted of 6,000 infantry, 2,100 cavalry, and 12–15 artillery pieces. Pedro Girón's rebel force was larger but slower, with 10,000 infantry, 900 cavalry, and 13 artillery pieces. The rebels' deficiency in cavalry would hurt them throughout the war.[1]


المبادرات العسكرية في پالنسيا وبرغش

An ornate stone gate with statues.
Arco de Santa María in Burgos, one of the few cities loyal to the king on the Iberian plateau


حملات المتمردين في مطلع 1521

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Padilla's decision on the rebels' next move

A stone tower at the corner of the defensive walls.
The taking of the Castle of Torrelobatón, built in the 13th century, provided a much-needed victory for the comuneros. The castle was renovated in 2007 and is now a tourist site.


حملة أكونيا الجنوبية

The Church of the Virgin of Highest Grace in Mora, completely reconstructed after royalist troops set fire to it while 50 refugees took shelter inside. The royalist commander Prior Zúñiga denied responsibility.[2]


معركة بيالار

Soldiers and cannon on the battlefield; an officer on a white horse points to direct his men.
A 19th century work by Manuel Picolo López depicting the Battle of Villalar


نهاية الحرب

After the Battle of Villalar, the towns of northern Castile soon succumbed to the king's troops, with all its cities returning their allegiance to the king by early May. Only Madrid and Toledo kept their Comunidades alive.[3]

مقاومة طليطلة

A woman rests her head in her hand while sitting at a table; a knight in armor and others stand by having told her the bad news.
María Pacheco receives notice of the death of her husband at Villalar. The painting is a 19th-century work by Vicente Borrás.

Later influence

A soldier in a 19th-century military uniform.
Juan Martín Díez, "El Empecinado" ("The Undaunted"), who tried to rehabilitate the reputation of the comuneros in 1821

The revolt, fresh in the memory of Spain, is referenced in several literary works during Spain's Golden Age. Don Quixote references the rebellion in a conversation with Sancho, and Francisco de Quevedo uses the word "comunero" as a synonym for "rebel" in his works.[4][5]

People celebrating.
A floral offering at Villalar, on Castile and León Day, April 23, 2006


People at a celebration holding a huge purple flag.  Others wave different flags, such as the Cross of Burgundy or the modern flag of Castile and León.
The April 23, 2007 gathering at Villalar. Villalar was renamed Villalar de los Comuneros in 1932, under the liberal Second Republic.[6]

انظر أيضاً

ملاحظات

  1. ^  This article uses the term "tax" to encompass a variety of revenue-raising methods the government used. Briefly, servicios were flat monetary grants paid to the treasury; the encabezamiento was a portion of the sales tax towns collected sent to the government; and the cruzada ("crusade") was a special and semi-voluntary contribution that counted as an indulgence and was generally used for war against the Muslims. Charles wanted to abolish the lenient encabezamiento and return to an older and harsher system of direct royal control of tolls, pasturage fees, and the like. He also requested large servicios at the Cortes he held. Part of the revenue problem the government had was that income from the cruzada had fallen greatly since the Reconquista had finished in 1492.[7]
  2. ^  Junta, meaning "Congress" or "Assembly," did not yet have the negative connotation of "Oligarchical military dictatorship" in the 16th century.
  3. ^  There exists a theory that Girón's errors were in fact an intentional betrayal of the comuneros. Considering his moderate stance and later pardon by the government, historians such as Seaver consider this possible, but unlikely.[1]


مراجع

  1. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة seaver200
  2. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة seaver333
  3. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة seaver339
  4. ^ Cervantes, Miguel de (1615). "Volume 2, Chapter 43". Don Quixote de la Mancha (in Spanish). Rodolfo Schevill and Adolfo Bonilla; digital form and editing by Fred F. Jehle. p. 61. ISBN  0-394-90892-9 . Retrieved 2008-09-27.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  5. ^ Pérez 2001, p. 236.
  6. ^ "20.000 personas celebran en Villalar la fiesta de Castilla y León" (in Spanish). Cadena SER. 2004-04-23. Retrieved 2008-11-12.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  7. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة hal147

ببليوگرافيا

English language sources:

  • Haliczer, Stephen (1981). The Comuneros of Castile: The Forging of a Revolution, 1475-1521. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN  0-299-08500-7 .
  • Lynch, John (1964). Spain under the Habsburgs. (vol. 1). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Miller, Townsend (1963). The Castles and the Crown. New York: Coward-McCann.
  • Seaver, Henry Latimer (1966) [1928]. The Great Revolt in Castile: A Study of the Comunero Movement of 1520-1521. New York: Octagon Books.

Spanish and other language sources:

  • Díez, José Luis (1977). Los Comuneros de Castilla (in Spanish). Madrid: Editorial Mañana. ISBN  84-7421-025-9 . OCLC 4188611.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  • Guilarte, Alfonso María (1983). El obispo Acuña: Historia de un comunero (in Spanish). Valladolid: Ambito. ISBN  84-86047-13-7 .CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  • Maravall, José Antonio (1963). Las comunidades de Castilla: Una primera revolución moderna (in Spanish). Madrid: Revista de Occidente. OCLC 2182035.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  • Gutiérrez Nieto, Juan Ignacio (1973). Las comunidades como movimiento antiseñorial: La formación del bando realista en la Guerra Civil Castellana de 1520-1521 (in Spanish). Barcelona: Editorial Planeta. ISBN  84-320-7801-1 .CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) CS1 maint: Ignored ISBN errors (link)
  • Pérez, Joseph (1998) [1970]. La révolution des "Comunidades" de Castille, 1520-1521 (in French in 1970 edition; Spanish in 1978 translation). Bordeaux: Institut d'études ibériques et ibéro-américaines de l'Université de Bordeaux. ISBN  84-323-0285-6 .CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  • Pérez, Joseph (2001). Los Comuneros (in Spanish). Madrid: La Esfera de los Libros, S.L. ISBN  84-9734-003-5 .CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)