تطور تقاربي

These two succulent plant genera, Euphorbia and Astrophytum, are only distantly related, but have independently converged on a very similar body form.

التطور التقاربي Convergent evolution، كائنان حيان أو أكثر لاتربطهما صلة، يعيشان في بيئة متشابهة، ولهما ميزات متشابهة (مثل الجسم، والزعانف في القروش والدولفين).[1]

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الأسباب

التمييز من إعادة التطور

أمثلة

  1. تحويل Template:Further
The pill millipede and pill bug look almost identical, but the latter is actually a class of wood louse that has adapted similar defenses

Parallel vs. convergent evolution

Evolution at an amino acid position. In each case, the left-hand species changes from incorporating alanine (A) at a specific position within a protein in a hypothetical common ancestor deduced from comparison of sequences of several species, and now incorporates serine (S) in its present-day form. The right-hand species may undergo divergent, parallel, or convergent evolution at this amino acid position relative to that of the first species.


الأهمية

The skulls of the thylacine (left) and the gray wolf are quite similar, although the species are only distantly related. Studies show the skull shape of the red fox is even closer to that of the thylacine.[2]

انظر أيضا

المصادر

  1. ^ عبد الجليل هويدي، محمد أحمد هيكل (2004). أساسيات الجيولوجيا التاريخية. مكتبة الدار العربية للكتب.
  2. ^ L Werdelin (1986). "Comparison of Skull Shape in Marsupial and Placental Carnivores". Australian Journal of Zoology. 34 (2): 109–117. doi:10.1071/ZO9860109.


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قراءات للإستزادة

  • McGhee, G.R. (2011). Convergent Evolution: Limited Forms Most Beautiful. Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge (MA). 322 pp.
  • Rasmussen, L.E.L., Lee, T.D., Roelofs, W.L., Zhang, A., Doyle Davies Jr, G. (1996). Insect pheromone in elephants. Nature. 379: 684.
  • Convergent Evolution Examples- Ecological Equivalents, Department of Biology, Bellarmine University.
  • Stearns, S. & Hoekstra, R. 2005. Evolution: An introduction.
  • Lowe, Nancy, "Single Centers of Creation", Southern Spaces, 30 November 2009.
  • McMenamin, M.A.S. (1998). The Garden of Ediacara: Discovering the First Complex Life. Columbia University Press.