انتفاضة عيد الفصح

Easter Rising
Éirí Amach na Cásca
جزء من الفترة الثورية الأيرلندية
Easter Proclamation of 1916.png
Proclamation of the Republic, Easter 1916
التاريخ24–29 April 1916
الموقع
Mostly Dublin
Skirmishes in counties Meath, Galway, Louth, Wexford and Cork.
النتيجة Unconditional surrender of rebel forces, execution of most leaders
الخصوم
قالب:Country data Irish Republic Irish rebel forces:
 Irish Volunteers
 Irish Citizen Army
 Fianna Eireann
المملكة المتحدة لبريطانيا العظمى وأيرلندا British forces:
British Army
Royal Irish Constabulary
القادة والزعماء
Patrick Pearse
James Connolly
Tom Clarke
Seán MacDermott
Joseph Plunkett
Éamonn Ceannt
Thomas MacDonagh
Lord Wimborne
Augustine Birrell
Matthew Nathan
Lord French
Lovick Friend
John Maxwell
William Lowe
القوات
1,250 in Dublin,
~2,000–3,000 volunteers elsewhere but they took little part in the fighting.
16,000 British troops and 1,000 armed RIC in Dublin by the end of the week.
الخسائر
66 killed
16 executed
unknown wounded
143 killed
397 wounded
260 civilians killed
2,200+ civilians wounded (including unknown number of rebels)
Total killed: 485

قالب:Campaignbox Irish independence

The Easter Rising (بالأيرلندية: Éirí Amach na Cásca),[1] also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, April 1916. The Rising was launched by Irish republicans to end British rule in Ireland and establish an independent Irish Republic while the United Kingdom was fighting the First World War. It was the most significant uprising in Ireland since the rebellion of 1798 and the first armed action of the Irish revolutionary period. Sixteen of the Rising's leaders were executed in May 1916, but the insurrection, the nature of the executions, and subsequent political developments ultimately contributed to an increase in popular support for Irish independence.

Organised by a seven-man Military Council of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, the Rising began on Easter Monday, 24 April 1916 and lasted for six days.[2] Members of the Irish Volunteers, led by schoolmaster and Irish language activist Patrick Pearse, joined by the smaller Irish Citizen Army of James Connolly and 200 women of Cumann na mBan, seized strategically important buildings in Dublin and proclaimed an Irish Republic. The British Army brought in thousands of reinforcements as well as artillery and a gunboat. There was street fighting on the routes into the city centre, where the rebels slowed the British advance and inflicted many casualties. Elsewhere in Dublin, the fighting mainly consisted of sniping and long-range gun battles. The main rebel positions were gradually surrounded and bombarded with artillery. There were isolated actions in other parts of Ireland; Volunteer leader Eoin MacNeill had issued a countermand in a bid to halt the Rising, which greatly reduced the number of rebels who mobilised.

With much greater numbers and heavier weapons, the British Army suppressed the Rising. Pearse agreed to an unconditional surrender on Saturday 29 April, although sporadic fighting continued briefly. After the surrender the country remained under martial law.About 3,500 people were taken prisoner by the British and 1,800 of them were sent to internment camps or prisons in Britain. Most of the leaders of the Rising were executed following courts-martial. The Rising brought physical force republicanism back to the forefront of Irish politics, which for nearly fifty years had been dominated by constitutional nationalism. Opposition to the British reaction to the Rising contributed to changes in public opinion and the move toward independence, as shown in the December 1918 election which was won by the Sinn Féin party, which convened the First Dáil and declared independence.

Of the 485 people killed in the Easter Rising: 54 per cent were civilians, 30 per cent were British military and police and 16 per cent were Irish rebels. More than 2,600 were wounded. Many of the civilians were killed or wounded by British artillery and machine guns or were mistaken for rebels. Others were caught in the crossfire in a crowded city. The shelling and the resulting fires left parts of central Dublin in ruins.

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خلفية

Members of the Irish Citizen Army outside Liberty Hall, under the slogan "We serve neither King nor Kaiser, but Ireland"


التخطيط للانتفاضة

Roger Casement, who attempted to smuggle weapons from Germany for the Rising

التصاعد إلى أسبوع الفصح

The signatories of the Proclamation: Tom Clarke, Seán MacDiarmada, Thomas MacDonagh, Patrick Pearse, Éamonn Ceannt, James Connolly, Joseph Plunkett


الانتفاضة في دبلن

إثنين عيد الفصح

General Post Office – the rebel headquarters
One of two flags flown over the GPO during the Rising
Positions of rebel and British forces in central Dublin


A street barricade erected by the rebels in Dublin during the Rising


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الثلاثاء والأربعاء

British armoured truck, hastily built from the smokeboxes of several steam locomotives at Inchicore railway works.[3]
Volunteers and Irish Citizens Army members inside the General Post Office, 25th of April 1916.


British soldiers in position behind a stack of barrels during the Rising in Dublin

الخميس إلى السبت

Birth of the Irish Republic by Walter Paget, depicting the GPO during the shelling


الاستسلام

British soldiers marching rebel prisoners away بعد الاستسلام.

الانتفاضة خارج دبلن

ملف:Front Page Irish War News.JPG
Irish War News, produced by the rebels during the Rising

Irish Volunteer units mobilised on Easter Sunday in several places outside of Dublin, but because of Eoin MacNeill's countermanding order, most of them returned home without fighting. In addition, because of the interception of the German arms aboard the Aud, the provincial Volunteer units were very poorly armed.


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Enniscorthy

Enniscorthy in the 1890s.


الخسائر

Henry Street, Dublin, after the Rising. The shell of the GPO is on the right.


الأعقاب

The burnt out shell of the GPO, the rebel headquarters, after the Rising
1916 Irish Republican Army, Leaders of the Insurrection, Powell Press Poster
Ruins of the Metropole Hotel on Sackville Street, next to the GPO.
The spot at Kilmainham Gaol where most of the leaders were executed
The burial spot of the leaders of the Rising, in the old prison yard of Arbour Hill Prison. The Proclamation of 1916 is inscribed on the wall in both Irish and English
British soldiers searching the River Tolka in Dublin for arms and ammunition after the Easter Rising. May 1916
View of O'Connell Bridge, 1916
View of O'Connell Bridge, 1916, on a German postcard. The caption reads: Rising of the Sinn Feiners in Ireland. O'Connell bridge with Dublin city, where the fiercest clashes took place.


انظر أيضاً

المراجع

  1. ^ "Department of the Taoiseach – Easter Rising". Taoiseach.gov.ie. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  2. ^ Leaders and Men of the Easter Rising: Dublin 1916 Francis X. Martin 1967 p105
  3. ^ "Statement by Joseph Sweeney Curious Journey: An Oral History of Ireland's Unfinished Revolution". BBC. Retrieved 18 October 2009.

ببليوگرافيا

  • Augusteijn, Joost (ed.)The Memoirs of John M. Regan, a Catholic Officer in the RIC and RUC, 1909–48, Witnessed Rising, ISBN 978-1-84682-069-4.
  • Bell, J. Bowyer. The Secret Army: The IRA. ISBN 1-85371-813-0.
  • Caulfield, Max, The Easter Rebellion, Dublin 1916 ISBN 1-57098-042-X
  • Clayton, Xander (2007). Aud. Plymouth: GAC. ISBN 9780955562204.
  • Coogan, Tim Pat, 1916: The Easter Rising (2001) ISBN 0-304-35902-5
  • Coogan, Tim Pat, The IRA (2nd ed. 2000), ISBN 0-00-653155-5
  • De Rosa, Peter. Rebels: The Irish Rising of 1916. Fawcett Columbine, New York. 1990. ISBN 0-449-90682-5
  • Eberspächer, Cord/Wiechmann, Gerhard: "Erfolg Revolution kann Krieg entscheiden". Der Einsatz von S.M.H. LIBAU im irischen Osteraufstand 1916 ("Successful revolution may decide war". The use of S.M.H. LIBAU in the Irish Easter rising 1916), in: Schiff & Zeit, Nr. 67, Frühjahr 2008, S. 2–16.
  • Ellis, Peter Berresford (2008). "1916: Insurrection or Rebellion? Making Judgements". In O'Donnell, Ruán (ed.). The Impact of the 1916 Rising: Among the Nations. Dublin: Irish Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-7165-2965-1.
  • Feeney, Brian, Sinn Féin: A Hundred Turbulent Years, O'Brien Press, 2002, ISBN 0-86278-695-9
  • Foster, R. F. Vivid Faces: The Revolutionary Generation in Ireland, 1890–1923 (2015) excerpt
  • Foy, Michael and Barton, Brian, The Easter Rising ISBN 0-7509-2616-3
  • Greaves, C. Desmond, The Life and Times of James Connolly
  • The Irish Times (1998) [1917]. 1916 Rebellion Handbook. Introduction by Declan Kiberd (reprint ed.). Mourne River Press. ISBN 9781902090054.
  • Kee, Robert, The Green Flag ISBN 0-14-029165-2
  • Kennedy, Christopher M. (2010). Genesis of the Rising, 1912–1916: A Transformation of Nationalist Opinion. Peter Lang. ISBN 978-1433105005. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  • Kostick, Conor & Collins, Lorcan, The Easter Rising, A Guide to Dublin in 1916 ISBN 0-86278-638-X
  • Lyons, F.S.L., Ireland Since the Famine ISBN 0-00-633200-5
  • Martin, F.X. (ed.), Leaders and Men of the Easter Rising, Dublin 1916
  • Macardle, Dorothy, The Irish Republic (Dublin 1951)
  • MacDonagh, Oliver, Ireland: The Union and its aftermath, George Allen & Unwin, 1977, ISBN 0-04-941004-0
  • McKeown, Eitne, 'A Family in the Rising' Dublin Electricity Supply Board Journal 1966.
  • McNally, Michael and Dennis, Peter, Easter Rising 1916: Birth of the Irish Republic (London 2007), Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1-84603-067-3
  • Moran, Seán Farrell, Patrick Pearse and the Politics of Redemption, 1994, Catholic University of America Press, ISBN 978-0-81320-912-8
  • "Patrick Pearse and the European Revolt Against Reason," in The Journal of the History of Ideas, 50,4, 1989.
  • "Patrick Pearse and Patriotic Soteriology," in Yonah Alexander and Alan O'Day, eds, The Irish Terrorism Experience, (Aldershot: Dartmouth) 1991
  • Murphy, John A., Ireland In the Twentieth Century
  • Ó Broin, Leon, Dublin Castle & the 1916 Rising, Sidgwick & Jackson, 1970
  • O'Farrell, Elizabeth, 'Events of Easter Week' The Catholic Bulletin (Dublin 1917).
  • Purdon, Edward, The 1916 Rising
  • Royal Commission on the Rebellion in Ireland (1916). Report. Command papers. Cd.8279. London: HMSO. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  • Royal Commission on the Rebellion in Ireland (1916). Minutes of Evidence and Appendix of Documents. Command papers. Cd.8311. London: HMSO. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  • Ryan, Annie, Witnesses: Inside the Easter Rising
  • Shaw, Francis, S.J., "The Canon of Irish History: A Challenge", in Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, LXI, 242, 1972, pp. 113–52
  • Stephens, James, The Insurrection in Dublin
  • Townshend, Charles, Easter 1916: The Irish Rebellion (London 2006)

التاريخانية

  • Bunbury, Turtle. Easter Dawn – The 1916 Rising (Mercier Press, 2015) ISBN 978-1781-172582
  • McCarthy, Mark. Ireland's 1916 Rising: Explorations of History-Making, Commemoration & Heritage in Modern Times (2013), historiography excerpt
  • Neeson, Eoin, Myths from Easter 1916, Aubane Historical Society (Cork, 2007), ISBN 978-1-903497-34-0

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Easter Rising قالب:IRB قالب:History of Dublin