إيجس، منظومة الدفاع الصاروخي البالستي

(تم التحويل من أيگيس، نظام دفاع بري)
الشعار باللاتينية: Custos Custodum Ipsorum ويعني "حراس الأوصياء على أنفسهم".

منظومة الدفاع الصاروخي البالستي أيگيس (Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System، اختصاراً Aegis BMD أو ABMD)،[1] هو أحد برامج وكالة الدفاع الصاروخي التابعة لوزارة الدفاع الأمريكية تم تطويره لتوفير الدفاع الصاروخي ضد الصواريخ البالستية القصيرة ومتوسطة المدى. وهو جزء من استراتيجية الدفاع الصاروخي الوطني للولايات المتحدة. المنظومة مصممة لاعتراض الصواريخ البالستية في مرحلة ما بعد الدفع وقبل إعادة الدخول.

تمكن المنظومة السفن الحربية من إسقاط الصواريخ البالستية للعدو بتمديد نظام أيگيس القتالي بإضافة رادار AN/SPY-1 وتقنيات الصواريخ القياسية. يمكن للسفن المزودة بمنظومة أيگيس نقل معلوماتها الخاصة بالتحقق من الهدف إلى منظومة دفاع وسيط بري، وإذا ما اقتضت الحاجة، الالتحام بالتهديدات المحتملة باستخدام معترضات الصواريخ SM-3 متوسطة المدى وصواريخ SM-2 Block IV أو SM-6 طويلة المدى.[2][3][4] منظومة أيگيس، غير مصممة، في الوقت الحالي على الأقل، لاعتراض الصواريخ البالستية القارية طويلة المدى. يتم جمع بيانات التحقق والتتبع بواسطة رادر منظومة أيگيس، وقد يتم تمريره إلى أنظمة أمريكة أخرى مضادة للصواريخ البالستية المصممة لاعتراض الصواريخ البالستية العابرة للقارات طويلة المدى.[5]

يستخدم النظام الحالي نظام تسليح أيگيس لوكهيد مارتن والصاروخ القياسي رايثيون. ومن أبرز المقاولين الفرعيين والخبراء التقنيين المشاركين في بناء المنظومة بوينگ للدفاع والفضاء والأمن، أليانت تكنوسيستمز، هني‌ول، إنگيليتي، مركز الحرب السطحية البحرية، مركز الحرب الفضائية والبحرية، [معمل الفيزياء التطبيقية]] في جامعة جونز هوپكنز، ومعهد مساتشوستس للتكنولوجيا (معمل لنكولن).

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التاريخ والتطوير التقني

الأصول

Standard Missile - 3 (SM-3) is launched from the Pearl Harbor-based Aegis cruiser USS Lake Erie. November 17, 2005


تاريخ البرنامج والتطوير

نظام الدفاع البري أيگيس

قمرة منظومة أيگيس البرية.


معترضات SM-3 وSM-2 Block IV

SM-3 Interceptor profile



نشر المنظومة

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البحرية الأمريكية

اليابان

لدى قوات الدفاع الذاتي البحرية اليابانية ثلاث سفن مجهزة لمنظومة إيجس والالتحام جى‌إس كونگو، جى‌إس چوكاي، جى‌إس مايوكو، وجى‌إس كيريشيما في 2010.[6][7] في 4 أبريل 2009، اتفق وزير الخارجية الياباني هيروفومي ناكاسونه ونظيره الكوري الجنوبي يو مايونگ-هوان على إطلاق[8] الساتل الكوري الشمالي أون‌ها-2 في في يوليو 2006، الذي يعد انتهاكاً لقراري الأمم المتحدة رقم 1695 و1718. درست الحكومة اليابانية الموافقة على استخدام منظومة إيجس في حالة فشل إطلاق تاى‌پون‌دونگ.[9][10][11][12] كما أشارت الحكومة اليابانية إلى أنها يمكن أن تتجاوز اعتراض مجلس الوزراء بموجب المادة 3، المادة 2، الفقرة 3 من قانون قوات الدفاع الذاتي.[13] في ذلك الوقت، تم نشر خمسة مدمرات مزودة بمنظومة إيجس.[14] كممكمل لقدرة SM-3 تشتمل المنظومة اليابانية على مكون محمول جواً. من الممكن التمييز بين اختبارات المنصة وإطلاق السواتل من خلال تحليل زاوية الصعود.[15]

في 25 يونيو 2020، أعلن وزير الدفاع الوطني الياباني تارو كونو، أن مجلس الأمن القومي الياباني وافق على خطط لإلغاء نشر نظامين أمريكيين مكلفين للدفاع الصاروخي البري، بهدف تعزيز قدرة البلاد على مواجهة تهديدات كوريا الشمالية.[16]

اتخذ المجلس قراره في اليوم السابق، وعلى الحكومة اليابانية الدخول في مفاوضات مع الولايات المتحدة حول ما يجب القيام به بخصوص المدفوعات وعقد الشراء المبرم بالفعل لأنظمة إيجس للدفاع البري.

ومن المتوقع أن يقوم المجلس أيضا بمراجعة خطة الدفاع الأساسية لليابان في وقت لاحق من هذا العام لتحديث برنامج الدفاع الصاروخي وتوسيع وضع الدفاع في البلاد.

كان وزير الدفاع تارو كونو عن خطة لإلغاء منظومتي الدفاع قد أعلن في يونيو 2020، بعد أن تبين عدم وجود ضمانات لسلامة الموقعين الذين سيتم نشر منظومتي الدفاع بها دون إعادة تصميم للمعدات، الأمر الذي سيستغرق وقتاً طويلاً وتكلفة طائلة.

في عام 2017، كانت الحكومة اليابانية قد وافقت على إضافة منظومتي إيجس للدفاع البري لتعزيز الدفاعات الحالية للبلاد، والتي تتكون من مدمرات مسلحة بنظام إيجس على صواريخ پتريوت وصواريخ بحرية على البر.

وقال مسؤولو الدفاع إن وحدتي إيجس للدفاع البري يمكن أن تغطي اليابان بالكامل من محطة في يماگوتشي في الجنوب وأخرى في أكيتا في الشمال.

واجهت خطة نشر النظامين بالفعل سلسلة من الانتكاسات، بما في ذلك أسئلة حول اختيار مواقع نشرها، والزيادات المتكررة في التكلفة التي ارتفعت إلى 450 مليار ين (4.1 مليار دولار) من أجل التشغيل والصيانة لمدة 30 عاماً، و خاوف تتعلق بالسلامة، مماأدى إلى المعارضة المحلية.

وقال وزير الدفاع الياباني تارو كونو إن اليابان وقعت مع الولايات المتحدة عقداً يقارب نصف التكلفة الإجمالية ودفعت جزءاً منه.

قال رئيس الوزراء الياباني شين‌زو آبه، الذي سعى بشكل مطرد لتعزيز القدرة الدفاعية لليابان، في منتصف يونيو 2020، أنه في ضوء إلغائها للصفقة ستحتاج الحكومة إلى إعادة النظر في برنامج الدفاع الصاروخي الياباني والقيام بالمزيد في ظل التحالف الأمني مع الولايات المتحدة.

وقال آبه إن الحكومة ستدرس إمكانية اكتساب قدرة القايم بضربات استباقية، وهي خطة مثيرة للجدل يقول منتقدوها إنها تنتهك الدستور الياباني الذي ينبذ الحرب.

الجدل السياسي

ردود الفعل الدولية

قدرات أخرى


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هدف محاكاة الطيران داخل الغلاف الجوي

اختبارات الطيران

الاسم التاريخ النتيجة الوصف[17][18][19]
CTV-1 26 سبتمبر 1997 فشلت The first flight test for the Navy Theater Wide program's Control Test Vehicle-1 (CTV-1) was on September 26, 1997, using a SM-2 Block IV missile modified for exo-atmospheric flight and launched from يوإس‌إس Russell. The missile self-destructed soon after launch after veering off course. The root cause of this problem was a defect in the Navy's existing SM-2 Block IV ordnance, not due to any guidance modifications for high-altitude flight. The Navy and BMDO thus characterized the flight as a "No-Test".
CTV-1A 24 سبتمبر 1999 نجحت The next flight for Raytheon's SM-3 came on September 24, 1999, during Control Test Vehicle (CTV)-1A (Codename: Stellar Phoenix). CTV-1a was a test of the first and second stage of the SM-3. The mission was considered a success. يوإس‌إس Shiloh was the launching ship.
FTR-1 8 يوليو 2000 فشلت The next mission was conducted in July 2000 and designated Flight Test Round (FTR-1) (Codename: Stellar Archer). This mission ended in failure when the Third Stage Rocket Motor (TSRM) failed to separate from the second stage. USS Shiloh was the launching ship.
FTR-1A 25 يناير 2001 نجحت FTR-1a (Codename: Stellar Gemini) was conducted on January 25, 2001. This mission would be the first time a live unitary target was engaged by the Aegis BMD system. The test target was launched from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility located on the Hawaiian island of Kauai.

FTR-1a would demonstrate exo-atmospheric avionics operation of the SM-3 Kinetic Warhead (KW) and the real-time performance of the Aegis BMD AN/SPY-1 radar. At the time this test was conducted, the KW's propulsion system, the Solid Divert and Attitude Control System (SDACS), was still being developed. Total system operation was demonstrated in FM-2. The mission was considered successful when the KW acquired and tracked the test target for several seconds. يوإس‌إس Lake Erie was the launching ship.

FM-2 25 يناير 2002 نجحت The purpose of Flight Mission (FM)-2 (codename: Stellar Eagle) was to characterize the Aegis Weapon System and Standard Missile 3 interceptor. The mission was not required to intercept the target. On January 25, 2002, an SM-3 launched from USS Lake Erie collided with a test target northeast of the island of Kauai. This mission was the first interception of a ballistic missile from a sea-based platform.
FM-3 13 يناير 2002 نجحت Aegis BMD succeeded in intercepting a unitary target missiles launched from PMRF during FM-3 (Codename: Stellar Impact). USS Lake Erie was the firing ship. This mission marked the successful completion of the Aegis LEAP Intercept program. June 13, 2002 was also the date that the United States withdrew from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty), which limited the development of a strategic anti-ballistic missile system (to be considered strategic Aegis would need capability against the current Russian ICBMs and SLBMs).
FM-4 21 نوفمبر 2001 نجحت Aegis BMD intercepted a unitary ballistic missile during FM-4 (codename: Stellar Viper). FM-4 was the first Aegis BMD test to conduct the "aimpoint shift" maneuver. The aimpoint shift increases the probability that the ballistic missile ordnance will be destroyed at intercept. USS Lake Erie was the launching ship.
FM-5 18 يناير 2003 فشلت On June 18, 2003 the FM-5 mission (codename: Stellar Hammer) resulted in the first test failure of an operational Aegis BMD system. During the test, the SDACS propulsion system used to guide the SM-3's kinetic warhead suffered a malfunction after ignition. It is important to note that prior to the rocket motor failure the SM-3 kinetic warhead was on an intercept course with the test target. USS Lake Erie was the firing ship.
FM-6 11 ديسمبر 2003 نجحت The next mission, Codename: Stellar Defender, implemented a modification to the SDACS design so as not to endanger the warhead's ability to intercept. This override allowed the KW to navigate with reduced (but no less lethal) capability. FM-6 once again featured a successful interception. USS Lake Erie was the firing ship.
FTM-04-1 24 فبراير 2005 نجحت After the FM-6 mission, the Missile Defense Agency implemented a change to the flight test naming convention for all subsequent ABMD flight tests. According to MDA the new convention better reflected the program's position within the Block 2004/2006 schema of development. The new name, Flight Test Mission (FTM) 04-1 (codename: Stellar Dragon), indicated that this would be the first flight test under the Block 2004 development cycle for Aegis BMD. The flight test demonstrated yet again the system's ability to destroy an enemy ballistic missile. USS Lake Erie was the firing ship.
FTM-04-2 17 نوفمبر 2005 نجحت Codename Stellar Valkyrie, this was the first mission to utilize a target missile with a separating warhead. This new target missile, termed a Medium Range Target (MRT) more closely resembled real world threat missiles, but the SM-3 Block I missile was not fooled and intercepted the warhead to score the sixth interception for the program out of seven tries on November 17, 2005. USS Lake Erie was the firing ship.
FTM-10 23 يونيو 2006 نجحت The FTM-10 test target was the MRT with a separating warhead. USS Shiloh was the launching ship and utilized the Aegis Weapon System version 3.6 for the first time. This test was the first to feature the latest model of the SM-3, the Block Ia. The mission was considered a success when the KW tracked, selected and intercepted the MRT reentry vehicle (RV).

FTM-10 marked the first time another country participated in a sea-based anti-ballistic missile exercise. The Japanese government was interested in purchasing a system similar to Aegis BMD to deter potential threats and was invited to participate in the FTM-10 exercise. The Japanese naval vessel JDS Kirishima (a Kongō، طراز destroyer) was stationed off the coast of PMRF and observed all FTM-10 events.[20]

FTM-11 7 ديسمبر 2006 فشلت Due to an on-board error, the Aegis Weapon System failed to engage the test target and never launched the interceptor. The error was discovered and corrected prior to the retest of FTM-11 test flight. USS Lake Erie was the firing ship.[21]
FTM-11 Event 4 26 أبريل 2007 نجحت Aegis BMD successfully intercepted its eighth target in ten attempts. This test marked the 27th successful "Hit-to-Kill" intercept (for all MDA systems) since 2001. USS Lake Erie was the launching ship and utilized the Aegis 3.6 Weapon System. The interceptor was the SM-3 Block-Ia. This test not only demonstrated the ability of ABMD to intercept a ballistic missile but also demonstrated Lake Erie's ability to simultaneously track and intercept antiship missiles. This test also utilized the Solid Divert and Attitude Control System (SDACS), in the full pulse configuration.[22]
FTM-11A 31 أغسطس 2007 نجحت Classified flight test.[23]
FTM-12 22 يونيو 2007 نجحت يوإس‌إس Decatur, using the operationally certified Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Weapon System (BMD 3.6) and the Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA missile, successfully performed a "hit to kill" intercept of a separating, medium range, ballistic missile. The target missile was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai, Hawaii. The Ticonderoga، طراز cruiser يوإس‌إس Port Royal, Spain's Álvaro de Bazán، طراز frigate Méndez Núñez, and MDA's Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) mobile ground-based radar also participated in the flight test. FTM-12 (Codename: Stellar Athena) was the first to use an Arleigh Burke، طراز destroyer as the launching ship.[24]
FTM-13 6 نوفمبر 2007 نجحت USS Lake Erie launched two interceptors off the island of Kauai, Hawaii, engaging two short-range ballistic missile targets almost simultaneously.
FTM-14 6 يونيو 2008 نجحت USS Lake Erie successfully intercepted a terminal phase target with a modified SM-2 Block IV interceptor. The aim of this mission was to test the interception and destruction of a short range ballistic missile target launched from a mobile launch platform.[25]
FTM-15 15 أبريل 2011 نجحت The Missile Defense Agency (MDA), يوإس‌إس O'Kane, and the 94th Army Air and Missile Defense Command operating from the 613th Air and Space Operations Center at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, successfully conducted a flight test of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) element of the nation's Ballistic Missile Defense System, resulting in the intercept of a separating ballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean. FTM-15, was the most challenging test to date, as it was the first Aegis BMD version 3.6.1 intercept against an intermediate-range target (range 1,864 to 3,418 miles) and the first Aegis BMD 3.6.1 engagement relying on remote tracking data. The ability to use remote radar data to engage a threat ballistic missile greatly increases the battle space and defended area of the SM-3 missile.[26]
FTM-16 Event 1 15 مارس 2011 نجحت USS Lake Erie successfully tracked a ballistic missile target. In addition to the BMD mission, Lake Erie also validated the ship's anti-air warfare (AAW) capability by destroying an incoming anti-ship cruise missile target with an SM-2 Block III missile in a live firing exercise. This was the first event in which a ship used BMD 4.0.1 Weapon System to engage an AAW threat.[27]
FTM-16 Event 2 1 سبتمبر 2011 فشلت A short-range ballistic missile target was launched from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai, Hawaii. Approximately 90 seconds later, a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block 1B interceptor missile was launched from USS Lake Erie but an intercept of the target was not achieved. The failure was due to a third stage rocket motor pulse failure [28][29]
FTM-16 Event 2A 9 مايو 2012 نجحت USS Lake Erie successfully conducted a flight test of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, resulting in the first intercept of a short-range ballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean by the Navy's newest Missile Defense interceptor, the Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IB.[30]
FTM-17 30 يوليو 2009 نجحت يوإس‌إس Hopper, detected, tracked, fired and guided a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block (Blk) IA to intercept a sub-scale short range ballistic missile.[28][31]
FTM-18 27 يونيو 2012 نجحت USS Lake Erie successfully conducted a flight test of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, resulting in the intercept of a separating ballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean by the Navy's newest missile defense interceptor missile, the Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IB. The test event was the second consecutive successful intercept test of the SM-3 Block IB missile and the second-generation Aegis BMD 4.0.1 weapon system. The first successful SM-3 Block IB intercept occurred on May 9, 2012.[32][33]
FTM-19 16 مايو 2013 نجحت USS Lake Erie successfully conducted a flight test today of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, resulting in the intercept of a separating ballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean by the Aegis BMD 4.0 Weapon System and a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IB missile. This test exercised the latest version of the second-generation Aegis BMD Weapon System and Standard Missile, providing capability for engagement of longer-range and more sophisticated ballistic missiles.[34]
FTM-20 13 فبراير 2013 نجحت USS Lake Erie successfully conducted a flight test of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, resulting in the intercept of a medium-range ballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean by a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA guided missile. The in-orbit Space Tracking and Surveillance System-Demonstrators (STSS-D) detected and tracked the target, and forwarded track data to USS Lake Erie. The ship, equipped with the second-generation Aegis BMD weapon system, used Launch on Remote doctrine to engage the target. This event, designated Flight Test Standard Missile 20 (FTM-20), was a demonstration of the ability of space-based assets to provide mid-course fire control quality data to an Aegis BMD ship, extending the battlespace, providing the ability for longer range intercepts and defense of larger areas.[35]
FTO-1 10 سبتمبر 2013 نجت FTO-01 was conducted in the vicinity of the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll Ronald Reagan Ballistic Missile Defense Test Site and surrounding areas in the western Pacific. The test stressed the ability of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) and Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) weapon systems to function in a layered defense architecture and defeat a raid of two near-simultaneous ballistic missile targets. USS Decatur with its Aegis Weapon System detected and tracked the first target with its onboard AN/SPY-1 radar. The Aegis BMD weapon system developed a fire control solution, launched a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA missile, and successfully intercepted the target.[36]

In a demonstration of BMDS layered defense capabilities, a second AN/TPY-2 radar in Terminal Mode, located with the THAAD weapon system, acquired and tracked the target missiles. THAAD developed a fire control solution, launched a THAAD interceptor missile, and successfully intercepted the second medium-range ballistic missile target. THAAD was operated by soldiers from the Alpha Battery, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment. As a planned demonstration of THAAD's layered defense capabilities, a second THAAD interceptor was launched at the target destroyed by Aegis as a contingency in the event the SM-3 did not achieve an intercept.[36]

FTM-21 18 سبتمبر 2013 نجحت USS Lake Erie successfully conducted a flight test today of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, resulting in the intercept of a complex separating short-range ballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean by the Aegis BMD 4.0 Weapon System and a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IB guided missile. This was an operationally realistic test, in which the target's launch time and bearing are not known in advance, and the target complex was the most difficult target engaged to date.[37]
FTM-22 3 أكتوبر 2013 نجحت USS Lake Erie successfully conducted an operational flight test of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, resulting in the intercept of a medium-range ballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean by the Aegis BMD 4.0 Weapon System and a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IB guided missile. FTM-22 is the 28th successful intercept in 34 flight test attempts for the Aegis BMD program since flight testing began in 2002. Across all Ballistic Missile Defense System programs, this is the 64th successful hit-to-kill intercept in 80 flight test attempts since 2001.
Stellar Daggers 26 مارس 2009 نجحت يوإس‌إس Benfold simultaneously engaged an SRBM in terminal phase and a cruise missile using SM-2s.[38]
JFTM-1 18 ديسمبر 2007 نجحت The JFTM-1 test event verified the new engagement capability of the Aegis BMD configuration of the recently upgraded Japanese destroyer, JS Kongō. At approximately 12:05 pm (HST), 7:05 am Tokyo time on December 18, 2007, a ballistic missile target was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. JS Kongō crew members detected and tracked the target. The Aegis Weapon System then developed a fire control solution and at approximately 12:08 pm (HST), 7:08 am Tokyo time, a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA was launched. Approximately three minutes later, the SM-3 successfully intercepted the target approximately 100 miles above the Pacific Ocean.[39]
JFTM-2 19 نوفمبر 2008 فشلت JFTM-2 was a test of the newest engagement capability of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense configuration of the recently upgraded Japanese destroyer, JS Chōkai. At approximately 4:21 pm (HST), 11:21 am (Tokyo time) a ballistic missile target was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. JS Chōkai crew members detected and tracked the target using an advanced on-board radar. The Aegis Weapon System then developed a fire control solution, and at approximately 4:24 pm (HST), 11:24 am (Tokyo time) on Nov 20, a single Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA was launched. Approximately two minutes later, the SM-3 failed to intercept the target. The cause of the failure was due to a SM-3 Block IA interceptor divert and attitude control malfunction.[28][40]
JFTM-3 19 نوفمبر 2008 نجحت The JFTM-3 test event verified the newest engagement capability of the Japan Aegis BMD configuration of the recently upgraded Japanese destroyer, JS Myōkō. At approximately 6:00pm (HST), 1:00 pm Tokyo time on October 28, a separating, medium-range ballistic missile target was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. JS Myōkō crew members detected and tracked the target. The Aegis Weapon System then developed a fire control solution and, at approximately 6:04pm (HST), 1:04 pm Tokyo time a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA interceptor missile was launched. Approximately three minutes later, the SM-3 successfully intercepted the target approximately 100 miles above the Pacific Ocean.[41]
JFTM-4 28 أكتوبر 2010 نجحت The JFTM-4 test event verified the newest engagement capability of the Japan Aegis BMD configuration of the recently upgraded Japanese destroyer, JS Krishima. At approximately 5:06 p.m. (HST), 12:06 p.m. Tokyo time on October 29, 2010, a separating 1,000 km class ballistic missile target was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii.

JS Kirishima crew members detected and tracked the target. The Aegis Weapon System then developed a fire control solution and launched a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA missile. Approximately three minutes later, the SM-3 successfully intercepted the target approximately 100 miles above the Pacific Ocean.[42]

FTI-01 25 أكتوبر 2012 فشلت The live-fire demonstration, conducted at U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll/Reagan Test Site, Hickam AFB, and surrounding areas in the western Pacific, stressed the performance of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD), THAAD, and PATRIOT (PAC-3) weapon systems. يوإس‌إس Fitzgerald successfully engaged a low flying cruise missile over water. The Aegis system also tracked and launched an SM-3 Block 1A interceptor against a Short-Range Ballistic Missile. However, despite indication of a nominal flight of the SM-3 Block 1A interceptor, there was no indication of an intercept of the SRBM. The failure was attributed to an Inertial Measurement Unit failure.[28][43]
Pacific BlitZ 1 نوفمبر 2008 مختلطة Pacific Blitz was the first U.S. Navy proficiency firing to employ the SM-3 missile against a ballistic missile target. During the Fleet Exercise "Pacific Blitz", two Pearl Harbor-based Aegis BMD destroyers, يوإس‌إس Paul Hamilton and USS Hopper fired SM-3 missiles at separate targets. Upon detecting and tracking the target, USS Paul Hamilton launched an SM-3 missile resulting in a direct hit. USS Hopper successfully detected, monitored and fired at the second target, but the interceptor missed. The cause of the failure was attributed to an infrared seeker failure [28][44][45]
Pacific Phoenix 6 مايو 2006 نجحت USS Lake Erie successfully intercepted a Unitary short-range target.[28][23]
FTM-25 6 نوفمبر 2014 نجحت يوإس‌إس John Paul Jones successfully conducted a flight test of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, resulting in three successful near-simultaneous target engagements over the Pacific Ocean. One short-range ballistic missile target was intercepted by a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IB guided missile, while two low-flying cruise missile targets were engaged by Standard Missile 2 (SM-2) Block IIIA guided missiles near-simultaneously.
MMW event 1 28 يوليو 2015 نجحت A short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) target was launched from PMRF in a northwesterly trajectory. USS John Paul Jones, positioned west of Hawaii, detected, tracked, and launched a SM-6 Dual I missile, resulting in a successful target intercept in the terminal stage.
MMW event 2 29 يوليو 2015 نجحت A short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) target was launched from PMRF in a northwesterly trajectory. USS John Paul Jones, positioned west of Hawaii, detected, tracked, and launched a SM-2 block 4 missile, resulting in a successful target intercept.
MTMD 20 أكتوبر 2015 نجحت A Terrier-Orion short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) target was launched from the UK's Hebrides Range, northwest of Scotland. With multinational vessels in the North Atlantic participating in Maritime Theater Missile Defense, يوإس‌إس Ross launched a SM-3 Block IA missile, resulting in a successful target intercept.
FTO-02 event 2a 31 أكتوبر 2015 فشلت The test stressed the ability of Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) and Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) weapon systems to negate two ballistic missile threats while Aegis BMD simultaneously conducted an anti-air warfare operation. A Short Range Air Launch Target (SRALT) was launched by a U.S. Air Force C-17. THAAD successfully intercepted the SRALT target. While THAAD was engaging the SRALT, an extended Medium Range Ballistic Missile (eMRBM) was air-launched by another Air Force C-17. The eMRBM target was detected and tracked by multiple BMDS assets including the AN/TPY-2 in forward-based mode, and USS John Paul Jones with its AN/SPY-1 radar. Shortly after eMRBM launch, a BQM-74E air-breathing target was also launched and tracked by USS John Paul Jones. Both Aegis BMD and THAAD launched interceptors to engage the eMRBM. USS John Paul Jones successfully launched a Standard Missile-3 (SM-3) Block IB Threat Upgrade guided missile, but an anomaly early in its flight prevented a midcourse intercept. However, the THAAD interceptor, in its terminal defense role, acquired and successfully intercepted the target. Concurrently, Aegis BMD successfully engaged the BQM-74E air-breathing target with a Standard Missile-2 Block IIIA guided missile. A failure review is currently underway to investigate the SM-3 anomaly.
FTO-02 event 1a 9 ديسمبر 2015 نجحت During the test, a target representing a medium-range ballistic missile was air-launched from a U.S. Air Force C-17 aircraft over the broad ocean area southwest of Hawaii. The Aegis Ashore Weapon System then launched the SM-3 Block IB Threat Upgrade guided missile from its Vertical Launch System. The SM-3's kinetic warhead acquired the target reentry vehicle, diverted into its path, and destroyed the target using the kinetic force of a direct impact.
FTM-27 14 ديسمبر 2016 نجحت USS John Paul Jones, an Aegis baseline 9.C1 equipped destroyer, successfully fired a salvo of two SM-6 Dual I missiles against a complex medium-range ballistic missile target, demonstrating the Sea Based Terminal endo-atmospheric defensive capability.[46]
SFTM-01 3 فبراير 2017 نجحت The test from USS John Paul Jones was the first launch of an SM-3 Block IIA missile from an Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) ship, and the first intercept engagement using the Aegis Baseline 9.C2 (BMD 5.1) weapon system. SFTM-01 was the third flight test of the SM-3 Block IIA missile, but the first intercept attempt.[47]
SFTM-02 21 يونيو 2017 فشلت A medium-range ballistic target missile was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Kauai, Hawaii. The USS John Paul Jones (DDG 53) detected and tracked the target missile with its onboard AN/SPY-1 radar using the Aegis Baseline 9.C2 weapon system. Upon acquiring and tracking the target, the ship launched an SM-3 Block IIA guided missile, but the missile did not intercept the target.[48] The attempt was unsuccessful because a sailor on board the firing ship inadvertently designated the target as friendly, causing the Aegis Weapon System to break the engagement and initiate a message commanding the SM-3 Block IIA missile to destruct, destroying the missile in flight[49]
FTM-27 E2 29 أغسطس 2017 نجحت The USS John Paul Jones (DDG 53) successfully conducted a complex missile defense flight test, resulting in the intercept of a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) target using Standard Missile-6 (SM-6) guided missiles during a test off the coast of Hawaii.[50]
FS-17 E4 15 أكتوبر 2017 نجحت The guided-missile destroyer USS Donald Cook (DDG 75) successfully detected, tracked and intercepted a medium-range ballistic missile target with a Standard Missile-3 Block IB guided missile.[51]
FTM-29 31 يناير 2018 فشلت The Missile Defense Agency and U.S. Navy sailors manning the Aegis Ashore Missile Defense Test Complex (AAMDTC) conducted a live-fire missile flight test Jan. 31 using a Standard-Missile (SM)-3 Block IIA missile launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. This was a developmental and operational test of a new capability and utilized a missile variant not yet in production. The primary objective of the test, to intercept an air-launched intermediate-range ballistic missile target with an SM-3 Block IIA missile, was not achieved.[52]
JFTM-5 Event 2 11 سبتمبر 2018 نجحت The test event verified the newest BMD engagement capability of the Japan (J6) Aegis BMD configuration of the recently upgraded Japan destroyer, JS ATAGO (DDG-177). At approximately 10:37pm HST on September 11, 2018 a simple separating, ballistic missile target was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. JS ATAGO crew members detected and tracked the target. The Aegis Weapon System then developed a fire control solution and a Standard Missile -3 Block IB Threat Upgrade (SM-3 Blk IB TU) missile was launched. The SM-3 successfully intercepted the target above the Pacific Ocean.[53]
FTM-45 26 أكتوبر 2018 نجحت The USS John Finn (DDG-113) successfully conducted an intercept of a medium-range ballistic missile target with a Standard Missile-3 (SM-3) Block IIA missile during a flight test off the west coast of Hawaii.[54]
FTI-03 10 ديسمبر 2018 نجحت The Aegis Ashore Missile Defense Test Complex (AAMDTC) at the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) at Kauai, Hawaii, successfully conducted Flight Test Integrated-03 (FTI-03). This was an operational live fire test demonstrating the Aegis Weapon System Engage On Remote capability to track and intercept an Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) target with an Aegis Ashore-launched Standard Missile-3 (SM-3) Block IIA interceptor.[55]

معرض الصور

انظر أيضاً


المصادر

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