أمراض المناعة الذاتية

Autoimmune diseases
تصنيفات ومصادر خارجية
ICD-9 279.4
OMIM 109100
DiseasesDB 28805
MedlinePlus 000816
MeSH D001327

أمراض المناعة الذاتية Autoimmune disease تنتج عن رد فعل زائد لجهاز المناعة في الجسم ضد أعضاء وأجزاء داخلية خاصة به حيت لا يستطيع معرفة البصمة الوراثية الخاصة بخلايا الجسم فيتعامل معها كأنها غريبة عنه ويبدأ بمهاجمتها باستخدام خلايا المناعة والأجسام المناعية وهذا يسبب أضرار شديدة بالجسم قد تتركز في مكان واحد أو عضو واحد أو قد تهاجم مجموعة من الأعراض فيسبب مرض أو مجموعة من الأمراض فإذا هاجم جهاز المناعة، مثلاً، الجهاز العصبي، فإنه يهاجم جزءاً معيناً من جدار الأعصاب، مسبباً حالة تسمى "التصلب المتعدد" Multiple Sclerosis، وهي تؤدي إلى حدوث شلل بالجسم كله. وفي حالة مهاجمة الجهاز المناعي لمكان اتصال الأعصاب بالعضلات Neuro- Muscular Junctions، يحدث ضعف، وارتخاء شديد بالعضلات، يسمى، "وهن العضلات الوخيم" Myasthenia Gravis. وقد يهاجم الجهاز المناعي، صمامات القلب، كما في حالات الحمى الروماتزمية Rheumatic fever، أو يهاجم الجلد ويسبب احمراراً بالوجه، في شكل جناحي فراشة على الخدين، كما في حالات الذئبة الحمراء Lupus Erythematosis. ويهاجم الجهاز المناعي أحياناً المفاصل مسبباً "روماتيزم المفاصل" Rheumatoid arthrites. وقد يهاجم جهاز المناعة أكثر من عضو بالجسم، مثل الجلد، والقلب، والكبد، والكلى، والطحال، كما في مرض الذئبة الحمراء Systemic Lupus Erythematosis.

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أمراض المناعة الذاتية

من الممكن تصنيف أمراض المناعة الذاتية حسب النوع المناظر من فرط الحساسية: type II, type III, or type IV. (No type of autoimmune disease mimics type I hypersensitivity.)[1]

الاسم مقبول/
مشتبه به
فرط الحساسية جسم مضاد ذاتي
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) Accepted[2]
مرض أديسون Accepted[2]
Alopecia areata Accepted[2]
Ankylosing spondylitis Doubtful[2]
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) Accepted[2]
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia Accepted[3] II
Autoimmune hepatitis Accepted[2] Anti-Smooth Muscle Actin
Autoimmune inner ear disease Suspected[4]
Bullous pemphigoid Accepted[3] II Anti-Bullous Pemphigoid Antigen 1 and 2 (Hemidesmosome antigens)
Coeliac disease Accepted[5][6][7] IV?? Anti-transglutaminase
Chagas disease Suspected[8]
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Suspected[9] [10]
Crohns Disease (one of two types of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease "IBD") Accepted[2] IV
Dermatomyositis Accepted[11]
Diabetes mellitus type 1 Accepted[2] IV
Endometriosis Suspected[12]
Goodpasture's syndrome Accepted[2] II Anti-Basment Membrane Collagen Type IV Protein
Graves' disease Accepted[2] II
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) Accepted[2] IV Anti-ganglioside
مرض هاشيموتو Accepted[2] IV
Hidradenitis suppurativa Suspected[13]
مرض كاواساكي Suspected
IgA nephropathy Suspected
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura Accepted[2] II
Interstitial cystitis Suspected[14]
Lupus erythematosus Accepted[2] III
Mixed Connective Tissue Disease Accepted[2]
Morphea Suspected[15]
Multiple sclerosis (MS) Accepted[2] IV Anti-Myelin Basic Protein
Myasthenia gravis Accepted[2] II
Narcolepsy Suspected[16]
Neuromyotonia Suspected[17]
Pemphigus Vulgaris Accepted[2] II Anti-Desmogein 3
Pernicious anaemia Accepted[18] II
Polymyositis Accepted[11]
Primary biliary cirrhosis Accepted[19] Anti-p62, Anti-sp100, Anti-Mitochondrial(M2)
Rheumatoid arthritis Accepted[2] III Rheumatoid factor
Schizophrenia Suspected[20][21][22]
Scleroderma Suspected[15] Anti-topoisomerase
Sjögren's syndrome Accepted[2]
Stiff person syndrome Suspected
Temporal arteritis (also known as "giant cell arteritis") Accepted[2] IV
Ulcerative Colitis (one of two types of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease "IBD") Accepted[2] IV
Vasculitis Accepted[3] III
Vitiligo Suspected[23][24]
Wegener's granulomatosis Accepted[25] Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic(cANCA)


تطوير علاجات

In both autoimmune and inflammatory diseases the condition arises through aberrant reactions of the human adaptive or innate immune systems. In autoimmunity, the patient’s immune system is activated against the body's own proteins. In inflammatory diseases, it is the overreaction of the immune system, and its subsequent downstream signaling (TNF, IFN, etc), which causes problems.

A substantial minority of the population suffers from these diseases, which are often chronic, debilitating, and life-threatening. There are more than eighty illnesses caused by autoimmunity. It has been estimated that autoimmune diseases are among the ten leading causes of death among women in all age groups up to 65 years.[26]

Currently, a considerable amount of research is being conducted into treatment of these conditions. According to a report from Frost & Sullivan, the total alliance payouts in the autoimmune/inflammation segment from 1997 to 2002 totaled $489.8 million, where Eli Lilly, Suntory, Procter & Gamble, Encysive, and Novartis together account for 98.6 percent of alliance payouts.[27]

المصادر

  1. ^ Parham, Peter (2005). The immune system. New York: Garland Science. p. 344. ISBN 0-8153-4093-1.
  2. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ك MeSH Autoimmune+Diseases
  3. ^ أ ب ت "Autoimmune Disorders: Immune Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition".
  4. ^ "Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease, Baylor College of Medicine". 1993.
  5. ^ "Celiac Disease".
  6. ^ Meize-Grochowski R (2005). "Celiac disease: a multisystem autoimmune disorder". Gastroenterol Nurs. 28 (5): 394–402, quiz 403–4. doi:10.1097/00001610-200509000-00005. PMID 16234635.
  7. ^ Sollid LM, Jabri B (2005). "Is celiac disease an autoimmune disorder?". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 17 (6): 595–600. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2005.09.015. PMID 16214317. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  8. ^ Hyland KV, Engman DM (2006). "Further thoughts on where we stand on the autoimmunity hypothesis of Chagas disease". Trends Parasitol. 22 (3): 101–2, author reply 103. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2006.01.001. PMID 16446117.
  9. ^ Agustí A, MacNee W, Donaldson K, Cosio M. (2003). "Hypothesis: does COPD have an autoimmune component?". Thorax. 58 (10): 832–834. doi:10.1136/thorax.58.10.832. PMID 14514931.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Lee SH, Goswami S, Grudo A; et al. (2007). "Antielastin autoimmunity in tobacco smoking-induced emphysema". Nat. Med. 13 (5): 567–9. doi:10.1038/nm1583. PMID 17450149. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ أ ب "Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis: Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue: Merck Manual Home Edition".
  12. ^ Gleicher N, el-Roeiy A, Confino E, Friberg J (1987). "Is endometriosis an autoimmune disease?". Obstetrics and gynecology. 70 (1): 115–22. PMID 3110710.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ "Clinical Trial: Etanercept in Hidradenitis Suppurativa". Retrieved 2007-07-08.
  14. ^ Kárpáti F, Dénes L, Büttner K (1975). "[Interstitial cystitis=autoimmune cyatitis? Interstitial as a participating disease in lupus erythematosus]". Zeitschrift für Urologie und Nephrologie (in German). 68 (9): 633–9. PMID 1227191.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  15. ^ أ ب Takehara K, Sato S (2005). "Localized scleroderma is an autoimmune disorder". Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 44 (3): 274–9. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keh487. PMID 15561734.
  16. ^ Carlander, B., Eliaou J.F., Billiard M. (1993). "Autoimmune hypothesis in narcolepsy". Neurophysiol. Clin. 23: 15. doi:10.1016/S0987-7053(05)80279-5.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Maddison P (2006). "Neuromyotonia". Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 117 (10): 2118–27. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2006.03.008. PMID 16843723.
  18. ^ "MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Pernicious anemia". Retrieved 2008-04-05.
  19. ^ Eaton WW, Byrne M, Ewald H; et al. (2006). "Association of schizophrenia and autoimmune diseases: linkage of Danish national registers". The American journal of psychiatry. 163 (3): 521–8. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.521. PMID 16513876. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. ^ Jones AL, Mowry BJ, Pender MP, Greer JM (2005). "Immune dysregulation and self-reactivity in schizophrenia: do some cases of schizophrenia have an autoimmune basis?". Immunol. Cell Biol. 83 (1): 9–17. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1711.2005.01305.x. PMID 15661036.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. ^ Strous RD, Shoenfeld Y (2006). "Schizophrenia, autoimmunity and immune system dysregulation: a comprehensive model updated and revisited". J. Autoimmun. 27 (2): 71–80. doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2006.07.006. PMID 16997531.
  22. ^ "Questions and Answers about Vitiligo". Retrieved 2007-08-06.
  23. ^ "A New Gene Linked to Vitiligo and Susceptibility to Autoimmune Disorders - Journal Watch Dermatology". Retrieved 2007-08-06.
  24. ^ Sánchez-Cano D, Callejas-Rubio JL, Ortego-Centeno N (2008). "Effect of rituximab on refractory Wegener granulomatosis with predominant granulomatous disease". J Clin Rheumatol. 14 (2): 92–3. doi:10.1097/RHU.0b013e31816b4487. PMID 18391678. Unknown parameter |doi_brokendate= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  25. ^ Noel R. Rose and Ian R. MacKay, “The Autoimmune Diseases” fourth edition
  26. ^ Frost & Sullivan Report, “Antibody Technology Developments” September 2005

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Immune disorders