ولوف (لغة)

ولوف Wolof
موطنهاالسنغال، گامبيا، موريتانيا
العرقولوف، لـِبو
الناطقون الأصليون
4.2 مليون (2006)e17
المتكلمون بها كلغة ثانية: ؟
النيجر-كونغو
اللاتينية (أبجدية الولوف)
العربية (ولوفال)
الوضع الرسمي
ينظمهاCLAD (مركز اللغويات التطبيقية في دكار)
أكواد اللغات
ISO 639-1wo
ISO 639-2wol
ISO 639-3Either:
wol – ولوف
wof – ولوف گامبية
Linguasphere90-AAA
Wolof Locator.png

وُلوف (الإنگليزية النطق: /θjˈwɒlɒf/,[1] /ˈwlɒf/[2][3]) هي لغة أغلبية سكان السنغال وأقلية كبيرة في موريتانيا، وعدد الناطقين بها 7 مليون، ومنهم 3 مليون من شعب الولوف يتكلمونها كلغة أم. وهي لغة أطلسية مثل البولارية. ورسمياً تكتب الولفية بالأبجدية اللاتينية، لكن الأبجدية العربية مستعملة أكثر عند الشعب، وتسمى "وُلُفَلْ" عندهم.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

التوزيع الجغرافي

دويلات امبراطورية الولوف


الكتابة والنطق

ملحوظة: النطق الصوتي مكتوب بين أقواس مربعة [] following the rules of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

The Latin orthography of Wolof in Senegal was set by government decrees between 1971 and 1985. معهد اللغة "المركز اللغوي التطبيقي في دكار" (CLAD) is widely acknowledged as an authority when it comes to spelling rules for Wolof.

Wolof is most often written in this orthography, in which phonemes have a clear one-to-one correspondence to graphemes.

(A traditional Arabic-based transcription of Wolof called Wolofal dates back to the pre-colonial period and is still used by many people.)

The first syllable of words is stressed; long vowels are pronounced with more time, but are not automatically stressed, as they are in English.

الحروف المتحركة

The vowels are as follows:[بحاجة لمصدر]

Vowels
Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i i u u
Close-mid e é o ó
mid ə ë
Open-mid ɛ e ɛː ɔ o ɔː
Open a a

There may be an additional low vowel, or this may be confusion with orthographic à.[بحاجة لمصدر]

All vowels may be long (written double) or short.[4] /aː/ is written à before a long (prenasalized or geminate) consonant.

Vowels fall into two harmonizing sets according to ART: i u é ó ë are +ATR, e o a are the −ATR analogues of é ó ë. For example,[5]

Lekk-oon-ngeen /lɛkːɔːnŋɡɛːn/
[eat-PAST-FIN.2pl]
'Y'all ate.'
Dóór-óón-ngéén /doːroːnŋɡeːn/
[hit-PAST-FIN.2pl]
'Y'all hit.'

الصوامت

Consonants in word-initial position are as follows:[6]

Wolof consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m m n n ɲ ñ ŋ ŋ[7]
Prenasalized stop mb mb nd nd ɲɟ nj ŋɡ ng
Plosive voiced b b d d ɟ j ɡ g
voiceless p p t t c c k k q ʔ
Fricative f f s s x~χ x
Trill r r
Approximant central w w j y
lateral l l


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الأرقام

الأرقام بذاتها

The Wolof numeral system is based on the numbers "5" and "10". It is extremely regular in formation, comparable to Chinese. Example: benn "one", juróom "five", juróom-benn "six" (literally, "five-one"), fukk "ten", fukk ak juróom benn "sixteen" (literally, "ten and five one"), ñett-fukk "thirty" (literally, "three-ten"). Alternatively, "thirty" is fanweer, which is roughly the number of days in a lunar month (literally "fan" is day and "weer" is moon.)

0 tus / neen / zéro [French] / sero / dara ["nothing"]
1 benn
2 ñaar / yaar
3 ñett / ñatt / yett / yatt
4 ñeent / ñenent
5 juróom
6 juróom-benn
7 juróom-ñaar
8 juróom-ñett
9 juróom-ñeent
10 fukk
11 fukk ak benn
12 fukk ak ñaar
13 fukk ak ñett
14 fukk ak ñeent
15 fukk ak juróom
16 fukk ak juróom-benn
17 fukk ak juróom-ñaar
18 fukk ak juróom-ñett
19 fukk ak juróom-ñeent
20 ñaar-fukk
26 ñaar-fukk ak juróom-benn
30 ñett-fukk / fanweer
40 ñeent-fukk
50 juróom-fukk
60 juróom-benn-fukk
66 juróom-benn-fukk ak juróom-benn
70 juróom-ñaar-fukk
80 juróom-ñett-fukk
90 juróom-ñeent-fukk
100 téeméer
101 téeméer ak benn
106 téeméer ak juróom-benn
110 téeméer ak fukk
200 ñaari téeméer
300 ñetti téeméer
400 ñeenti téeméer
500 juróomi téeméer
600 juróom-benni téeméer
700 juróom-ñaari téeméer
800 juróom-ñetti téeméer
900 juróom-ñeenti téeméer
1000 junni / junne
1100 junni ak téeméer
1600 junni ak juróom-benni téeméer
1945 junni ak juróom-ñeenti téeméer ak ñeent-fukk ak juróom
1969 junni ak juróom-ñeenti téeméer ak juróom-benn-fukk ak juróom-ñeent
2000 ñaari junni
3000 ñetti junni
4000 ñeenti junni
5000 juróomi junni
6000 juróom-benni junni
7000 juróom-ñaari junni
8000 juróom-ñetti junni
9000 juróom-ñeenti junni
10000 fukki junni
100000 téeméeri junni
1000000 tamndareet / million

أرقام الترتيب

Ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.) are formed by adding the ending –éélu (pronounced ay-lu) to the cardinal number.

For example two is ñaar and second is ñaaréélu

The one exception to this system is “first”, which is bu njëk (or the adapted French word premier: përëmye)

1st bu njëk
2nd ñaaréélu
3rd ñettéélu
4th ñeentéélu
5th juróoméélu
6th juróom-bennéélu
7th juróom-ñaaréélu
8th juróom-ñettéélu
9th juróom-ñeentéélu
10th fukkéélu

صرف الضمائر الزمنية

Situative (Presentative)

(Present Continuous)

Terminative

(Past tense for action verbs or present tense for static verbs)

Objective

(Emphasis on Object)

Processive (Explicative and/or Descriptive)

(Emphasis on Verb)

Subjective

(Emphasis on Subject)

Neutral
Perfect Imperfect Perfect Future Perfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect Perfect Imperfect
1st Person singular "I" maa ngi

(I am+ Verb+ -ing)

maa ngiy naa

(I + past tense action verbs or present tense static verbs)

dinaa

(I will ... / future)

laa

(Puts the emphasis on the Object of the sentence)

laay

(Indicates a habitual or future action)

dama

(Puts the emphasis on the Verb or the state 'condition' of the sentence)

damay

(Indicates a habitual or future action)

maa

(Puts the emphasis on the Subject of the sentence)

maay

(Indicates a habitual or future action)

ma may
2nd Person singular "you" yaa ngi yaa ngiy nga dinga nga ngay danga dangay yaa yaay nga ngay
3rd Person singular "he/she/it" mu ngi mu ngiy na dina la lay dafa dafay moo mooy mu muy
1st Person plural "we" nu ngi nu ngiy nanu dinanu lanu lanuy danu danuy noo nooy nu nuy
2nd Person plural "you" yéena ngi yéena ngiy ngeen dingeen ngeen ngeen di dangeen dangeen di yéena yéenay ngeen ngeen di
3rd Person plural "they" ñu ngi ñu ngiy nañu dinañu lañu lañuy dañu dañuy ñoo ñooy ñu ñuy

In urban Wolof it is common to use the forms of the 3rd person plural also for the 1st person plural.

It is also important to note that the verb follows certain temporal pronouns and precedes others.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الأدب

The New Testament was translated into Wolof and published in 1987, second edition 2004, and in 2008 with some minor typographical corrections.[8]

The 1994 song '7 seconds' by Youssou N'Dour and Neneh Cherry is partially sung in Wolof.

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  2. ^ "Wolof - definition of Wolof by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  3. ^ "Define Wolof at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  4. ^ Long ëë is rare (Torrence 2013:10).
  5. ^ Torrence 2013:11
  6. ^ Omar Ka, 1994, Wolof Phonology and Morphology
  7. ^ Or in some texts.
  8. ^ "Biblewolof.com". Biblewolof.com. Retrieved 2013-04-15.

ببليوگرافيا

اللغويات
  • Omar Ka: Wolof Phonology and Morphology. University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland, 1994, ISBN 0-8191-9288-0.
  • Mamadou Cissé: « Graphical borrowing and African realities » in Revue du Musée National d'Ethnologie d'Osaka, Japan, June 2000.
  • Mamadou Cissé: "Revisiter "La grammaire de la langue wolof" d'A. Kobes (1869), ou étude critique d'un pan de l'histoire de la grammaire du wolof.", in Sudlangues Sudlangues.sn, February 2005
  • Leigh Swigart: Two codes or one? The insiders’ view and the description of codeswitching in Dakar, in Carol M. Eastman, Codeswitching. Clevedon/Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters, ISBN 1-85359-167-X.
  • Fiona McLaughlin: Dakar Wolof and the configuration of an urban identity, Journal of African Cultural Studies 14/2, 2001, p. 153-172
  • Gabriele Aïscha Bichler: Bejo, Curay und Bin-bim? Die Sprache und Kultur der Wolof im Senegal (mit angeschlossenem Lehrbuch Wolof), Europäische Hochschulschriften Band 90, Peter Lang Verlagsgruppe, Frankfurt am Main, Germany 2003, ISBN 3-631-39815-8.
النحو
  • Pathé Diagne: Grammaire de Wolof Moderne. Présence Africaine, Paris, France, 1971.
  • Pape Amadou Gaye: Wolof - An Audio-Aural Approach. United States Peace Corps, 1980.
  • Amar Samb: Initiation a la Grammaire Wolof. Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire, Université de Dakar, Ifan-Dakar, Sénegal, 1983.
  • Michael Franke: Kauderwelsch, Wolof für den Senegal - Wort für Wort. Reise Know-How Verlag, Bielefeld, Germany 2002, ISBN 3-89416-280-5.
  • Michael Franke, Jean Léopold Diouf, Konstantin Pozdniakov: Le wolof de poche - Kit de conversation (Phrasebook/grammar with 1 CD). Assimil, Chennevières-sur-Marne, France, 2004 ISBN 978-2-7005-4020-8.
  • Jean-Léopold Diouf, Marina Yaguello: J'apprends le Wolof - Damay jàng wolof (1 textbook with 4 audio cassettes). Karthala, Paris, France 1991, ISBN 2-86537-287-1.
  • Michel Malherbe, Cheikh Sall: Parlons Wolof - Langue et culture. L'Harmattan, Paris, France 1989, ISBN 2-7384-0383-2 (this book uses a simplified orthography which is not compliant with the CLAD standards; a CD is available).
  • Jean-Léopold Diouf: Grammaire du wolof contemporain. Karthala, Paris, France 2003, ISBN 2-84586-267-9.
  • Fallou Ngom: Wolof. Verlag LINCOM, Munich, Germany 2003, ISBN 3-89586-616-4.
  • Sana Camara: Wolof Lexicon and Grammar, NALRC Press, 2006, ISBN 978-1-59703-012-0.
قاموس
  • Diouf, Jean-Leopold:Dictionaire wolof-français et français-wolof,Karthala,2003
  • Mamadou Cissé: Dictionnaire Français-Wolof, L’Asiathèque, Paris, 1998, ISBN 2-911053-43-5
  • Arame Fal, Rosine Santos, Jean Léonce Doneux: Dictionnaire wolof-français (suivi d'un index français-wolof). Karthala, Paris, France 1990, ISBN 2-86537-233-2.
  • Pamela Munro, Dieynaba Gaye: Ay Baati Wolof - A Wolof Dictionary. UCLA Occasional Papers in Linguistics, No. 19, Los Angeles, California, 1997.
  • Peace Corps Gambia: Wollof-English Dictionary, PO Box 582, Banjul, the Gambia, 1995 (no ISBN, available as PDF file via the internet; this book refers solely to the dialect spoken in the Gambia and does not use the standard orthography of CLAD).
  • Nyima Kantorek: Wolof Dictionary & Phrasebook, Hippocrene Books, 2005, ISBN 0-7818-1086-8 (this book refers predominantly to the dialect spoken in the Gambia and does not use the standard orthography of CLAD).
  • Sana Camara: Wolof Lexicon and Grammar, NALRC Press, 2006, ISBN 978-1-59703-012-0.
وثائق رسمية
  • Government of Senegal, Décret n° 71-566 du 21 mai 1971 relatif à la transcription des langues nationales, modifié par décret n° 72-702 du 16 juin 1972.
  • Government of Senegal, Décrets n° 75-1026 du 10 octobre 1975 et n° 85-1232 du 20 novembre 1985 relatifs à l'orthographe et à la séparation des mots en wolof.
  • Government of Senegal, Décret n° 2005-992 du 21 octobre 2005 relatif à l'orthographe et à la séparation des mots en wolof.

وصلات خارجية

Wikipedia
ولوف (لغة) edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Gxermo2.svg هذه المقالة عبارة عن بذرة تحتاج للنمو والتحسين؛ فساهم في إثرائها بالمشاركة في تحريرها.