لغة تواصل مشترك

1839 – Trilingual Chinese–Malay–English text – Malay was the lingua franca across the Strait of Malacca, including the coasts of the Malay Peninsula (now in Malaysia) and the eastern coast of Sumatra (now in Indonesia), and has been established as a native language of part of western coastal Sarawak and West Kalimantan in Borneo.

لغةُ تواصل مُشترك (باللاتينية: Lingua franca) هي لغه تواصل تستخدم للتواصل بين شخصين لا تجمعهم لغة أم واحدة وتنتشر لغات التواصل المشترك على نطاق واسع بشكل أكبر من عدد الأفراد الناطقين بها كلغة أم وعادة ما تكون لغة علوم أو كلغة للتجارة الدولية. مثال على ذلك العربية إذ بقيت لغة التواصل المشترك بين شعوب الخلافة العباسية خلال القرون الوسطى[1] كما اصبحت اللغة العربية هي لغة المعارف والعلوم[2] ، وفي العصر الحالي تمثل اللغة الإنجليزية لغة التواصل المشترك الأكثر استعمالا [3].

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أمثلة

مقال رئيسي: List of lingua francas

The use of lingua francas has existed since antiquity. Latin and Koine Greek were the lingua francas of the Roman Empire and the Hellenistic culture. Akkadian (died out during Classical antiquity) and then Aramaic remained the common languages of a large part of Western Asia from several earlier empires.[4][5]

The Hindustani language (Hindi-Urdu) is the lingua franca of Pakistan and Northern India.[6][نشر ذاتي سطري?][7][صفحة مطلوبة] Many Indian states have adopted the Three-language formula in which students in Hindi-speaking states are taught: "(a) Hindi (with Sanskrit as part of the composite course); (b) Urdu or any other modern Indian language and (c) English or any other modern European language." The order in non-Hindi speaking states is: "(a) the regional language; (b) Hindi; (c) Urdu or any other modern Indian language excluding (a) and (b); and (d) English or any other modern European language."[8] Hindi has also emerged as a lingua franca for the locals of Arunachal Pradesh, a linguistically diverse state in Northeast India.[9][10]It is estimated that 90 percent of the state's population knows Hindi.[11]

Indonesian – which originated from a Malay language variant spoken in Riau – is the official language and a lingua franca in Indonesia and widely understood across the Malay world including Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, although Javanese has more native speakers. Still, Indonesian is the sole official language and is spoken throughout the country.

██ Regions where English is a majority native language ██ Regions where English is official but not a majority native language

Swahili developed as a lingua franca between several Bantu-speaking tribal groups on the east coast of Africa with heavy influence from Arabic.[12] The earliest examples of writing in Swahili are from 1711.[13] In the early 1800's the use of Swahili as a lingua franca moved inland with the Arabic ivory and slave traders. It was eventually adopted by Europeans as well during periods of colonization in the area. German colonizers used it as the language of administration in Tanganyika, which influenced the choice to use it as a national language in what is now independent Tanzania.[12]

In the European Union, the use of English as a lingua franca has led researchers to investigate whether a new dialect of English (Euro English) has emerged.[14]

When the United Kingdom became a colonial power, English served as the lingua franca of the colonies of the British Empire. In the post-colonial period, some of the newly created nations which had multiple indigenous languages opted to continue using English as an official language .

French is still a lingua franca in most Western and Central African countries and an official language of many, a remnant of French and Belgian colonialism. These African countries and others are members of the Francophonie.

Russian is in use and widely understood in Central Asia and the Caucasus, areas formerly part of the Russian Empire and Soviet Union, and in much of Central and Eastern Europe. It remains the official language of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Russian is also one of the six official languages of the United Nations.[15]

In Qatar, the medical community is primarily made up of workers from countries without English as a native language. In medical practices and hospitals, nurses typically communicate with other professionals in English as a lingua franca.[16] This occurrence has led to interest in researching the consequences and affordances of the medical community communicating in a lingua franca.[16]

Persian is also the lingua franca of Iran and its national language.

Hausa can also be seen as a lingua franca because it is the language of communication between speakers of different languages in Northern Nigeria and other West African countries.

The only documented sign language used as a lingua franca is Plains Indian Sign Language, used across much of North America. It was used as a second language across many indigenous peoples. Alongside or a derivation of Plains Indian Sign Language was Plateau Sign Language, now extinct. Inuit Sign Language could be a similar case in the Arctic among the Inuit for communication across oral language boundaries, but little research exists.


انظر أيضا

للاستزادة

  • Hall, R.A. Jr. (1966). Pidgin and Creole Languages. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0173-9.
  • Heine, Bernd (1970). Status and Use of African Lingua Francas. ISBN 3-8039-0033-6.
  • Kahane, Henry Romanos (1958). The Lingua Franca in the Levant.
  • Melatti, Julio Cezar (1983). Índios do Brasil (48 ed.). São Paulo: Hucitec Press.
  • Ostler, Nicholas (2005). Empires of the Word. London: Harper. ISBN 978-0-00-711871-7.
  • Ostler, Nicholas (2010). The Last Lingua Franca. New York: Walker. ISBN 978-0-8027-1771-9.

مصادر ومراجع

  1. ^ Islamic Imperialism, Efraim Karsh, p.40
  2. ^ Islamic History of the Middle East: Backgrounds, Development, and Fall of the Arab Empire, Wilson B. Bishai , p.357
  3. ^ English as a lingua franca - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ‏(en)
  4. ^ Ostler, 2005 pp. 38–40
  5. ^ Ostler, 2010 pp. 163–167
  6. ^ Mohammad Tahsin Siddiqi (1994), Hindustani-English code-mixing in modern literary texts, University of Wisconsin, https://books.google.com/?id=vnrTAAAAMAAJ, "... Hindustani is the lingua franca of both India and Pakistan ..." قالب:Self-published source
  7. ^ Lydia Mihelič Pulsipher; Alex Pulsipher; Holly M. Hapke (2005), World Regional Geography: Global Patterns, Local Lives, Macmillan, ISBN 0-7167-1904-5, https://books.google.com/?id=WfNaSNNAppQC, "... By the time of British colonialism, Hindustani was the lingua franca of all of northern India and what is today Pakistan ..." 
  8. ^ "Three Language Formula". Government of India Ministry of Human Resource Development Department of Education. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  9. ^ Chandra, Abhimanyu (22 August 2014). "How Hindi Became the Language of Choice in Arunachal Pradesh." Scroll.in. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  10. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/C-17.html
  11. ^ Roychowdhury, Adrija (27 February 2018). "How Hindi Became Arunachal Pradesh's Lingua Franca." The Indian Express. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  12. ^ أ ب "Swahili language". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  13. ^ E. A. Alpers, Ivory and Slaves in East Central Africa, London, 1975.., pp. 98–99 ; T. Vernet, "Les cités-Etats swahili et la puissance omanaise (1650–1720), Journal des Africanistes, 72(2), 2002, pp. 102–105.
  14. ^ Mollin, Sandra (2005). Euro-English assessing variety status. Tübingen: Narr. ISBN 382336250X.
  15. ^ "Department for General Assembly and Conference Management – What are the official languages of the United Nations?". United Nations. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
  16. ^ أ ب Tweedie, Gregory; Johnson, Robert. "Listening instruction and patient safety: Exploring medical English as a lingua franca (MELF) for nursing education". Retrieved 6 January 2018.

وصلات خارجية