صحن ثيودوسيوس الأول

نسخة من صحن ثيودوسيوس في متحف ميريدا، اسبانيا.

صحن ثيودوسيوس الأول Missorium of Theodosius I هو صحن مراسم فضي كبير محفوظ في Real Academia de la Historia, in Madrid, Spain. It was probably made in Constantinople for the tenth anniversary (decennalia) in 388 of the reign of the Emperor Theodosius I, the last Emperor to rule both the Eastern and Western Empires. It is one of the best surviving examples of Late Antique Imperial imagery and one of the finest examples of late Roman goldsmith work. It is the largest and most elaborate, and the most famous, of the 19 surviving vessels believed to represent largitio ("largesse") or a "ceremonial gift given by the emperor to a civil or military official".[1]

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الأيقونات

Reclining Terra, the Roman goddess of Mother Earth.

The dish shows a hieratic image of the Emperor framed in an arcade, giving a document contained in a diptych, possibly a letter of appointment, to a much smaller senior official, flanked by his two co-emperors, Valentinian II and his own son Arcadius, and bodyguards who can be identified by their hairstyles, torcs and shields as belonging to the German imperial bodyguard. The official receives the document with hands covered by his chlamys (cloak).[2]

Theodosius is shown far larger than the other figures, as is common in the hieratic Late Antique style, despite the fact that Valentinian II had been an Emperor for longer (he in turn is significantly larger than Arcadius or the unknown official). The three emperors have haloes which is usual at this period.

The peristyle in Diocletian's Palace, in modern-day Croatia.



الاكتشاف والحالة

A haloed Constantius II dispensing largitia (generosity) as if by magic, from the Chronography of 354.
The Missorium of Kerch representing Constantius II, Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg.

The subject of the decoration is the emperor enthroned with his co-reigning emperors. An inscription along the side of the rim makes it possible to identify him with certainty:

D(ominus) N(oster) THEODOSIVS PERPET(uus)AVG(ustus)OB DIEM FELICISSIMVM X

that is to say: “Our Lord Theodosius, emperor forever, on the most happy occasion of the tenth anniversary (of his reign).”

The inscription indicates that the dish was made at the time of the decennalia of an emperor named Theodosius.[3]. The presence of two co-regents makes it possible to exclude immediately Theodosius II, for he had one co-regent — his uncle Flavius Honorius — at the time of the tenth anniversary of his reign, celebrated in 412. This leaves the decennalia of Theodosius I, on January 19 388.[4] It was celebrated when the emperor was staying at Thessaloniki from September 387 to April 388. Some have concluded that the missorium was the work of a Thessalonician workshop, but it is more likely that it was ordered from the Imperial workshops in Constantinople; others think that the imperial workshop would have followed the emperor around on his travels.[5]


النمط

A copy of the Missorium of Theodosius in the Museum of Mérida, Spain.


انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Leader-Newby, 11
  2. ^ Leader-Newby, 14, 33; Kiilerich, 278
  3. ^ A. M. Canto, 2000, p. 291, reads the inscription D(ominus) n(oster) Theodosius perpet(uus)· Aug(ustus) ob diem felicissimum XV (i.e., quindecennalium), the 15 years of his reign. She sees a V over the X, therefore XV (pages 291 ff, and 1-2 of the addenda of 2015), and also believes the date of 388 impossible because Valentinian II lived and, being the senior emperor, he could not be in a second plane with respect to Theodosius. However, in 393 Valentinian II had already passed away. Therefore the date historically more possible are the quindecennalia of Theodosius I, January 19, 393 AD. (pp. 297 ff.), being the two co-reigning Augusti the sons of Theodosius, Arcadius and Honorius.
  4. ^ Leader-Newby, 14; Kiilerich, 373-374
  5. ^ Kiilerich, 274

المراجع

  • Almagro-Gorbea, M., Álvarez Martínez, J.M., Blázquez Martínez, J.M., y Rovira, S. (eds.), El Disco de Teodosio, Estudios del Gabinete de Antigüedaes 5, Madrid, Real Academia de la Historia, 2000 ISBN 8489512604 (in Spanish and other languages; includes Kiilerich, Meischner and Canto above).
  • Canto, Alicia M.: Las quindecennalia de Teodosio I el Grande (19 de enero del 393 d. C.) en el gran clípeo de Madrid, op. cit (El Disco de Teodosio), 289–300.
  • Hvalvik, R., "Christ Proclaiming the Law to His Apostles", in Aune, David Edward Aune and Fotopoulos, John (eds), The New Testament and Early Christian Literature in Greco-Roman Context: Studies in Honor of David E. Aune, 2006, BRILL, ISBN 9004143041, 9789004143043
  • Kiilerich, Bente, "Representing an Emperor: Style and Meaning on the Missorium of Theodosius I", in Almagro Gorbea, Martín et al, op. cit (El Disco de Teodosio) google books
  • Kitzinger, Ernst, Byzantine art in the making: main lines of stylistic development in Mediterranean art, 3rd-7th century, 1977, Faber & Faber, ISBN 0571111548 (US: Cambridge UP, 1977)
  • Leader-Newby, Ruth, Silver and Society in Late Antiquity: Functions and Meanings of Silver Plate in the Fourth to Seventh Centuries, 2004, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., ISBN 0754607283, 9780754607281, Google Books
  • Jutta Meischner: Das Missorium des Theodosius in Madrid, In: Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 111 (1996) S. 389-432. [abweichende Datierung des Theodosius-Missoriums]
  • Jutta Meischner: "El Missorium de Teodosio : una nueva interpretación", op.cit. (El Disco de Teodosio), 233-252, Abb.


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للاستزادة

وصلات خارجية