رومنة هبورن

قالب:Japanese writing

رَوْمنة هبورن (Hepburn romanization ؛ باليابانية: يابانية: ヘボン式ローマ字، هبورن: Hebon-shiki rōmaji, حرفياً "الحروف الرومانية بنمط هبورن") هي النظام الأوسع استخداماً لرَوْمنة اللغة اليابانية. وكانت قد نُشِرت في 1886 by American missionary James Curtis Hepburn, it uses consonants that approximate those in English and vowels that approximate those in Italian.[1] The "modified Hepburn system" (修正ヘボン式, shūsei Hebon-shiki), also known as the "standard system" (標準式, Hyōjun-shiki), was published with revisions in 1908.[2]

Although Kunrei-shiki romanization is the style favored by the Japanese government, Hepburn remains the most widely-used method of Japanese romanization.[1] It is learned by most foreign students of Japanese,[3] and is used within Japan for romanizing personal names, locations, and other information such as train tables and road signs.[4] People who speak English or Romance languages will generally be more accurate in pronouncing unfamiliar Japanese words romanized in the Hepburn style compared to other systems.[5][6]

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التاريخ

In 1867, American missionary James Curtis Hepburn published the first modern Japanese–English dictionary.[7] In 1886, he published the dictionary's third edition, which popularized a version of his system with input from an international commission consisting of Japanese and foreign scientists. In 1908, the Society for the Propagation of Romanization (ローマ字ひろめ会, Rōmaji Hirome-kai), led by educator Kanō Jigorō, published a version of the Hepburn system with revisions, which is known today as the "modified Hepburn" (修正ヘボン式, shūsei Hebon-shiki) or "standard system" (標準式, Hyōjun-shiki).[8][2]


Many students of Japanese as a foreign language learn Hepburn.


التنويعات

Former Japan National Railways-style board of Toyooka Station. Between the two adjacent stations, "GEMBUDŌ" follows the Hepburn romanization system, but "KOKUHU" follows the Nihon-shiki/Kunrei-shiki romanization system.

جداول الرومنة

Gojūon Yōon
あ ア a い イ i う ウ u え エ e お オ o
か カ ka き キ ki く ク ku け ケ ke こ コ ko きゃ キャ kya きゅ キュ kyu きょ キョ kyo
さ サ sa し シ shi す ス su せ セ se そ ソ so しゃ シャ sha しゅ シュ shu しょ ショ sho
た タ ta ち チ chi つ ツ tsu て テ te と ト to ちゃ チャ cha ちゅ チュ chu ちょ チョ cho
な ナ na に ニ ni ぬ ヌ nu ね ネ ne の ノ no にゃ ニャ nya にゅ ニュ nyu にょ ニョ nyo
は ハ ha ひ ヒ hi ふ フ fu へ ヘ he ほ ホ ho ひゃ ヒャ hya ひゅ ヒュ hyu ひょ ヒョ hyo
ま マ ma み ミ mi む ム mu め メ me も モ mo みゃ ミャ mya みゅ ミュ myu みょ ミョ myo
や ヤ ya ゆ ユ yu よ ヨ yo
ら ラ ra り リ ri る ル ru れ レ re ろ ロ ro りゃ リャ rya りゅ リュ ryu りょ リョ ryo
わ ワ wa ゐ ヰ i † ゑ ヱ e † を ヲ o ‡
ん ン n /n'
が ガ ga ぎ ギ gi ぐ グ gu げ ゲ ge ご ゴ go ぎゃ ギャ gya ぎゅ ギュ gyu ぎょ ギョ gyo
ざ ザ za じ ジ ji ず ズ zu ぜ ゼ ze ぞ ゾ zo じゃ ジャ ja じゅ ジュ ju じょ ジョ jo
だ ダ da ぢ ヂ ji づ ヅ zu で デ de ど ド do ぢゃ ヂャ ja ぢゅ ヂュ ju ぢょ ヂョ jo
ば バ ba び ビ bi ぶ ブ bu べ ベ be ぼ ボ bo びゃ ビャ bya びゅ ビュ byu びょ ビョ byo
ぱ パ pa ぴ ピ pi ぷ プ pu ぺ ペ pe ぽ ポ po ぴゃ ピャ pya ぴゅ ピュ pyu ぴょ ピョ pyo
  • Each entry contains hiragana, katakana, and Hepburn romanization, in that order.
  • † — The characters in red are rare historical characters and are obsolete in modern Japanese.[9][10] In modern Hepburn romanization, they are often undefined.[11]
  • ‡ — The characters in blue are rarely used outside of their status as a particle in modern Japanese,[12] and romanization follows the rules above.

Extended katakana

These combinations are used mainly to represent the sounds in words in other languages.

Digraphs with orange backgrounds are the general ones used for loanwords or foreign places or names, and those with blue backgrounds are used for more accurate transliterations of foreign sounds, both suggested by the Cabinet of Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.[13] Katakana combinations with beige backgrounds are suggested by the American National Standards Institute[14] and the British Standards Institution as possible uses.[15] Ones with purple backgrounds appear on the 1974 version of the Hyōjun-shiki formatting.[16]

イィ yi イェ ye
ウァ wa* ウィ wi ウゥ wu* ウェ we ウォ wo
ウュ wyu
ヴァ va ヴィ vi vu ヴェ ve ヴォ vo
ヴャ vya ヴュ vyu ヴィェ vye ヴョ vyo
キェ kye
ギェ gye
クァ kwa クィ kwi クェ kwe クォ kwo
クヮ kwa
グァ gwa グィ gwi グェ gwe グォ gwo
グヮ gwa
シェ she
ジェ je
スィ si
ズィ zi
チェ che
ツァ tsa ツィ tsi ツェ tse ツォ tso
ツュ tsyu
ティ ti トゥ tu
テュ tyu
ディ di ドゥ du
デュ dyu
ニェ nye
ヒェ hye
ビェ bye
ピェ pye
ファ fa フィ fi フェ fe フォ fo
フャ fya フュ fyu フィェ fye フョ fyo
ホゥ hu
ミェ mye
リェ rye
ラ゜ la リ゜ li ル゜ lu レ゜ le ロ゜ lo
リ゜ャ lya リ゜ュ lyu リ゜ェ lye リ゜ョ lyo
va vi ve vo
  • * — The use of in these two cases to represent w is rare in modern Japanese except for Internet slang and transcription of the Latin sound [w] into katakana. E.g.: ミネルウァ (Mineruwa "Minerva", from Latin MINERVA [mɪˈnɛrwa]); ウゥルカーヌス (Wurukānusu "Vulcan", from Latin VVLCANVS, Vulcānus [lˈkaːnʊs]). The wa-type of foreign sounds (as in watt or white) is usually transcribed to ワ (wa), while the wu-type (as in wood or woman) is usually to ウ (u) or ウー (ū).
  • ⁑ — has a rarely-used hiragana form in that is also vu in Hepburn romanization systems.
  • ⁂ — The characters in green are obsolete in modern Japanese and very rarely used.[9][10]

انظر أيضاً



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الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب Hadamitzky, Wolfgang; Spahn, Mark (October 2005). "Romanization systems". Wolfgang Hadamitzky: Japan-related Textbooks, Dictionaries, and Reference Works. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  2. ^ أ ب Unger, J. Marshall (1996). Literacy and Script Reform in Occupation Japan: Reading between the Lines. Oxford University Press. p. 53. ISBN 9780195356380.
  3. ^ Backhaus, Peter (29 December 2014). "To shine or to die: the messy world of romanized Japanese". The Japan Times Online. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  4. ^ "'Ti' or 'chi'? Educators call to unify romanization styles in Japan". Mainichi Daily News. 2 April 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  5. ^ Carr, Denzel. The New Official Romanization of Japanese. Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 59, No. 1 (Mar., 1939), pp. 99-102.
  6. ^ Haruhiko Kindaichi, Takeshi Shibata, Naoki Hayashi (1988). 日本語百科大事典 [Japanese encyclopedia]. Taishukan Shoten.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Li, Yu (2019). The Chinese Writing System in Asia: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (in الإنجليزية). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-000-69906-7. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  8. ^ Seeley, Christopher (2000). A History of Writing in Japan (Illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 140. ISBN 9780824822170.
  9. ^ أ ب Cabinet of Japan (November 16, 1946). 昭和21年内閣告示第33号 「現代かなづかい」 [Japanese Cabinet Order No.33 in 1946 - Modern kana usage] (in Japanese). Archived from the original on October 6, 2001. Retrieved May 25, 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  10. ^ أ ب Cabinet of Japan (July 1, 1986). 昭和61年内閣告示第1号 「現代仮名遣い」 [Japanese Cabinet Order No.1 in 1986 - Modern kana usage] (in Japanese). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  11. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة kenkyusha
  12. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة tebiki
  13. ^ Cabinet of Japan. "平成3年6月28日内閣告示第2号:外来語の表記" [Japanese cabinet order No.2 (June 28, 1991):The notation of loanword]. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Archived from the original on January 6, 2019. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  14. ^ "米国規格(ANSI Z39.11-1972)―要約". Retrieved 2016-02-27.قالب:Self-published source
  15. ^ "英国規格(BS 4812 : 1972)―要約". Retrieved 2016-02-27.قالب:Self-published source
  16. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة hyouzyunC

المراجع

  • Kent, Allen, Harold Lancour, and Jay Elwood Daily (Executive Editors). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science Volume 21. CRC Press, April 1, 1978. ISBN 0824720210, 9780824720216.

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Japanese romanization قالب:Japanese language