سبزوار

(تم التحويل من بيهق)
هذا المقال يتضمن أسماءً أعجمية تتطلب حروفاً إضافية (پ چ ژ گ ڤ ڠ).
لمطالعة نسخة مبسطة، بدون حروف إضافية
سبزوار

Sabzevar ، بيهق ، سربداران
مدينة
Fire-Temple 'Azarbarzin'
السوق القديم
Khosrovgerd Minaret
ضريح الحكيم السبزواري
ضريح ابنه فندق
Caravanserai Mehr
سبزوار is located in إيران
سبزوار
سبزوار
Location of Sabzevar in Iran
الإحداثيات: 36°12′45″N 57°40′55″E / 36.21250°N 57.68194°E / 36.21250; 57.68194Coordinates: 36°12′45″N 57°40′55″E / 36.21250°N 57.68194°E / 36.21250; 57.68194
Countryإيران إيران
ProvinceRazavi Khorasan
CountySabzevar
BakhshCentral
الحكومة
 • MayorMohammad Dowlatabadi
 • City CouncilChairman: Ghasem Hosseini Zade
Elevation
977٫6 m (3٬207٫3 ft)
Population
 (2016 Census)
 • Urban
243٬700 [1]
 • Population Rank in Iran
36th
منطقة التوقيتUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • الصيف (التوقيت الصيفي)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
الرمز البريدي051
الموقع الإلكترونيhttp://www.sabzevar.ir
سبزوار at GEOnet Names Server

سبزوار (فارسية: سبزوار[2] النطق ), وكانت تُعرف في السابق بإسم بيهق، هي مدينة وعاصمة مقاطعة سبزوار، في محافظة خراسان رضوي، على بعد نحو 220 كيلومتر غرب العاصمة الإقليمية مشهد، في شمال شرق إيران. وفي تعداد 2006، بلغ عدد سكانها 208,172 نسمة، في 57,024 عائلة.[3]

سبزوار هي المركز التجاري للمنطقة الزراعية التي تنتج الكرم والزبيب. كما توجد صناعات صغيرة، مثل تجهيز الأغذية والأواني النحاسية والمحركات الكهربائية. وتجد في السوق القديم الفواكه والخضروات المحفوظة والمجففة، وتُصدَّر من هناك. وتربط الطرق سبزوار بكل من طهران ومشهد. مطار سبزوار تنطلق منه رحلات محلية.[4]

تعرضت سبزوار لسيول جارفة في أبريل 2020. [5]

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التاريخ

يرجع تاريخ سبزوار إلى الألفية الأولى ق.م.. وتضم اللقى القديمة بيت النار Azarbarzin الذي مازال ماثلاً لليوم.

بعد الغزو المنغولي لإيران، كانت المدينة هي أول جزء في إيران يثور للحرية، بقيادة حركة سربدار.

في القرن 14، غزا تيمورلنك إيران ودمّر المدينة بالكامل. Contemporary sources mention 90,000 people having been murdered by Timur. After killing all men in the town, he cut their heads and made 3 pyramids of the heads, in what is now the modern Sarberiz (meaning "Place of heads") square.

مقاطعة سبزوار فقدها الصفويون لأوزبك بلاد ما وراء النهر، ولكن استعادوها عقب هجوم صفوي مضاد حوالي سنة 1600م، مع كل من هرات وفرح.[6]


قبل الإسلام

شعار متحف سبزوار
سبزوار 1933

Archeological hills around Sabzevar indicate a human civilization in this part of Iran going back الألفية الثالثة ق.م.. [7] Seals called " Marvi Balkhi " seals have been obtained in Sabzevar from the pre-Islamic period, which shows the political sovereignty of this region.

وثمة حفريات قام بها الپروفسور هنري پول فرانكفورت في 2007، اكتشف فيها أن سبزوار في الألفية الثالثة ق.م. كانت مركزاً لثقافة انتشرت وأثـَّرت على أماكن في أفغانستان وتركمنستان والهند والعراق. الشعار الحالي لمتحف سبزوار مأخوذ من أختام تلك الأيام.[8]

الپارثيون

In the Parthian era, the Sabzevar region was one of the most important divisions of the Parthian monarchy , and because it was located on the Silk Road , it was of special communicative importance. [26] Village Belashabad and S·hdyr from the Parthian that S·hdyr today in the era of Parthia, a temple, a Buddhist respectively.

الساسان

العصر الإسلامي

والي خراسان، الأحنف بن قيس، الذي كان تابعاً لـيزدگرد الثالث، فر في 32 هـ، وتحول أهل سبزوار إلى الإسلام. في ذلك العام، حين جاء عبد الله بن عامر إلى خراسان بأمر من ثالث الخلفاء الراشدين، أرسل أسود بن كلثوم إلى منطقة بيهق. قـُتـِل أسود، إلا أن أخاه أدهم واصل القتال حتى أخضع منطقة بيهق. وفي 125 هـ، فرّ يحيى بن زيد من سجن نصر بن سيار، والي خراسان، في مرو، وجاء إلى بيهق وجمع جيشاً ضد الأمويين من شيعة بيهق ونيساپور. ثم سار إلى بلخ. But in Jawzjan, he was defeated by the governor of Khorasan. After that, with the arrival of Hamid Ibn Qahtaba Taya , Sardar Abu Muslim Khorasani , Nasr Ibn Sayyar , fled from Sabzevar. Following this, in 225 AH, Hamzah ibn Azarak Sajestani, who was one of the Kharijites and the forerunner of the gentlemen of Sistan , after the liberation of Khorasan from the domination of the Abbasid caliphs , conquered Sabzevar and other cities of Khorasan. Later, Sabzevar fell into the hands of the Taherians , and Abdullah ibn Tahir divided this area into twelve parts. After the Taherians, this area fell into the hands of the Saffarids , and in the time of Yaqub Laith., Ahmdbnbdallh Khjstany rose raised in Bayhaq deployed and gathered an army and took Nishapur; But he was killed by his slave. Rafi ibn Harthama was also around 280 AH during the time of Umarulith . AH attacked Sabzevar to take the city from his agent; But for the second time, he failed and escaped. After the Saffarids, a ruler named Abu Sa'id ruled on behalf of the Samanids . But the people were suffering from him, and he brought the oppression to such an extent that one night the youths ambushed him and killed him. [30] The agent of Noah ibn Nasr Samani in the year 232 AH. AH Abu Ali ibn Muhammad in need due importance to the city of Sabzevar, and at the same time sending VOSHMGIR ZiyariHe attacked to repel him and capture Sabzevar, and Abu Ali, who could not resist, fled. During the time of the Ghaznavids , the city fell to Sultan Mahmud . Sultan Mahmud and his son Massoud paid attention to Sabzevar, so much so that after the death of Sultan Mahmud, his son Sultan Massoud , who was returning from Isfahan to take his throne , settled in Beyhaq. Abolfazl Beyhaqi was also the author of Beyhaqi's history at the Ghaznavid court . [31] Simultaneously with the defeat of Sultan Massoud Ghaznavi and the conquest of Neishabour by the Seljuks of the Beyhaq peopleThey also recognized the Seljuk rule. In 444 AH. A severe earthquake shook the Bayhaq area, causing extensive damage and destroying the city ​​of Sabzevar. [32] In 464 AH. The wall was rebuilt by order of Khawaja al-Nizam al-Malik . [33] Around 490 AH. AH Batiniyeh sect from Qahistan attacked Bayhaq and killed and killed many people. [34] Among the Seljuks , Sultan Sanjar of Seljuk paid special attention to the Beyhaq areas and its people, and he stopped in Bayhaq for fifteen days on a trip with all his troops. [35] Khosrowgard minaret in 505 AH. AH is one of the remnants of that period. [36] At the same timeThe Ghazs came to Beyhaq and besieged the city for seven days, but to no avail. (Because the people against the stability and peace in the siege saw only one person was killed. [37] ) would dominate the area Bayhaq Kharazmshahian accepted. [38] In the year 561 AH. AH in the month of Muharram, confirmed by Ibeh, besieged Beyhaq and returned to Neishabour in the fifth month of Safar, after taking hostages from the residents; But a year later, he joined the siege of Sabzevar pay and two months in this time of war and a group of generals Khorezm in Sabzevar were finally Khwarazmshah Il-Arslan army guarding Abe arrived and confirmed again return to Nishapur. [39] In the year 617 AH. AH due to the invasion of Genghis KhanTo Iran, the reign of the Khwarezmshahis ended. In the Mongol invasion of Sabzevar, Tolikhan, the son of Genghis Khan , was attacked and about seventy thousand people were killed. After that, Sabzevar until 637 AH. AH under the supervision of the governor of Khorasan, the officer was appointed by Ogtay Khan . [40] After that, Prince Tughra of Timur, a Mongol survivor , ruled Sabzevar until he was killed by one of the Sarbdar kings .


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عصر السربدار

تصرف قلعه سبزوار توسط سپاه تیمور
عملة سربداران ضرب سبزوار
738 هـ

أثناء الغزو المنغولي، في 737 هـ، ثار أهل بشتين وسبزوار على المنغول وقتلوا وحاكم خراسان. اختار الثائرون اسم "سربدار" واتخذوا سبزوار عاصمة لحكمهم. [42] وأثناء حكم 50 سنة للسربدار في المنطقة، عولج الكثير من الضرر الذي خلّفه الغزو المنغولي والأجنبي. The Sarbdars ruled over large areas from the easternmost parts of Khorasan to the southeastern shores of the Caspian Sea , and from the north pledged allegiance to Ghazan Khan (Khan Kazan) Jaghtai, the Transoxiana Sultan . In the year 754 AH. AH Toghatimur Mongol by Khajeh Yahya KrabiHe was killed and the Ilkhanate government became extinct. Ibn Yamin was a famous poet at the court of Sarbadaran who lost the manuscript of his book in the battle of Herat . In the last years of Sarbadaran's rule, Amir Vali attacked Sabzevar, and Khajeh Ali Moayed, the last king of Sarbadaran, sought the help of Timur Lang. After four months of siege, Timur Lang arrived and entered Sabzevar. Timur attributed his puppet government to Sabzevar and left Sabzevar. After a few years, the people, led by Davood Sabzevari, revolted against him. Timur returned immediately and besieged the city. Eventually, he entered Sabzevar and buried nearly 2,000 insurgents near the tower wall and buried them alive. During the reign of Sarbadaran, many buildings were built in Sabzevar, which are still registered as national monuments of Iran . Grand Mosque andThe octopus pond is one of the most important works of this period. Also, the minted coins of Sarbadaran are kept in Malek National Museum, Astan Quds and 3. [44] [45] In recent years, a statue of the seven bodies of Sarbadaran has been erected at the entrance to the city.

العصر الصفوي

الموقع

Sabzevar is located in the west of Khorasan Razavi province at the northeast of Iran.

Sabzevar is a 650km far from Tehran (the capital of Iran).[9]

التعداد

In 1937 when Iran was ruled by Reza Shah, Sabzevar was the second most populated city in the 9th county.[10] According to the census of 2017, Sabzevar is Iran's 34th city.

النشيد

The special Anthem of Sabzevar was unveiled for the first time in 2010; it received the first rank in all anthems of cities in Razavi Khorasan province.


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المعالم الرئيسية

لافتة مرورية في سبزوار 2020.

Mil-e Khosrow Gerd (meaning "The brick tower of king Khosrau) is the highest brick tower in the city. Mosques include the Masjed Jameh of Friday mosque, with its two tall minarets. They were both built during the Islamic age of Sabzevar.

الجامعات

Hakim Sabzevari University is one of the most prestigious public university in Iran and the oldest university in Sabzevar. HSU was established in 1973 when its name was Kar University. After the Iran revolution in 1979, this university was halted until 1987. HSU was reestablished with a new name. The Tarbiat Moallem University of Sabzevar was working and growing until 2011. In this year this university was renamed to Hakim Sabzevari University. HSU offers 139 bachelors, masters, and Ph.D. programs to more than 9,200 male and female students studying under about 280 faculty members in 10 departments. HSU is known as the dynamic in science and the leading in development university in Iran.[11]


Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences is one of the most prestigious public universities in Khorasan province. MEDSAB was established in 1975. In 1986, School of nursing was founded in Sabzevar. MEDSAB offers 20 programs to more than 2000 students in medical fields. This university has more than 200 faculty members. There are 5 hospitals and 4 schools in this university.[12]


The city is home to the Islamic Azad University of Sabzevar (IAUS), founded in 1985 in response to increasing demands for a higher education center in the region; expansion and development have always continued within the university. IAUS is one of the most private universities in Khorasan province. Currently, there are about 6,500 students studying in three campuses.[13]


Sabzevar University of New Technoloy is the youngest public university in Khorasan province. SUNT was established in 2011. The main objective of this university on teaching and transferring new technology for women students. SUNT offers modern bachelors programs to more than 1000 female students studying in one department. SUNT is known as the third generation universities in Iran.[14]

North of Hashshmandi Sabzevar Hospital

المناخ

Sabzevar has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk). Sabzevar, Iran Climate Walter-Lieth Chart 1985-2014.svg

معالم تاريخية

أبرز الأشخاص

انظر أيضاً

المراجع

  1. ^ https://www.amar.org.ir/english
  2. ^ سبزوار can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3081638" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  3. ^ "تعداد جمهورية إيران الإسلامية 1385 (2006)". جمهورية إيران الإسلامية. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11.
  4. ^ Sabzevar
  5. ^ youtube
  6. ^ William Bayne Fisher. The Cambridge history of Iran. Cambridge University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-521-20094-6, ISBN 978-0-521-20094-3
  7. ^ Azar Borzin Mehr Fire Temple of Reyvand
  8. ^ http://iqna.ir/fa/news/3483962/موزه-سبزوار-از-نگهداری-اشیائی-از-هزاره-اول-پیش-از-میلاد-تا-وصیت‌نامه-شهدا
  9. ^ Where Is Sabzevar, Iran?
  10. ^ https://khorasanrazavi.mcls.gov.ir/fa/vahedhayetabe/khorasan
  11. ^ {http://www.hsu.ac.ir/}
  12. ^ {http://www.medsab.ac.ir/}
  13. ^ "About the University". IAUS. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
  14. ^ {http://www.sunt.ir/}

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Sabzevar County