المعهد الملكي لبريطانيا العظمى

(تم التحويل من المعهد الملكي)

المعهد الملكي لبريطانيا العظمى Royal Institution of Great Britain هي منظمة مكرسة للتعليم العلمي والبحثي، ومقرها في لندن.

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مقدمة

التاريخ

The Royal Institution ca. 1838.
Royal Institution Christmas Lectures 1856

حائزون على جائزة نوبل

  1. John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842–1919) - Physics 1904 with William Ramsey for the discovery of Argon
  2. Joseph John Thomson (1856–1940) - Physics 1906 for studies of electrical connection through gases
  3. Ernest, Baron Rutherford of Nelson (1871–1937) - Chemistry 1908 for work on the chemistry of radioactive substances and the disintegration of the elements
  4. William Lawrence Bragg (1890–1971)- Physics 1915 joint with WH Bragg, for determining the molecular structure of crystals using x-rays
  5. William Henry Bragg (1862–1942)- Physics 1915 joint with WL Bragg, for determining the molecular structure of crystals using x-rays
  6. Charles Scott Sherrington (1857–1952) - Chemistry 1932 shared, for his discovery of the function of neurons
  7. Henry Hallett Dale (1875–1968) - Medicine 1936 joint with Otto Loewi, for their work on the chemical transmission of nerve impulses[1]
  8. Peter Brian Medawar (1915–1987) - Medicine 1960 for his work on making permanent skin grafts
  9. John Cowdery Kendrew (1917–1997) - Chemistry 1962 with Perutz, for determining the structures of haemoglobin and myoglobin using X-ray crystallography and (new at the time) electronic computers
  10. Max Ferdinand Perutz (1914–2002) - Chemistry 1962 with Kendrew, for determining the structures of haemoglobin and myoglobin using X-ray crystallography and (new at the time) electronic computers
  11. Andrew Fielding Huxley (1917–2012) - Medicine 1963 for explaining how nerves use electricity to send signals around the body
  12. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (1910 – 1994) - Chemistry 1964 for determining the structure of important biochemical substances including vitamin B12 and penicillin using X-ray techniques
  13. George, Baron Porter of Luddenham (1920–2002) - Chemistry 1967 for work on chemical reactions triggered by light, and for photographing the behaviour of molecules during fast reactions
  14. Anthony Hewish (1924-) - Physics 1974 for his work on the discovery of pulsars
  15. Sir John Gurdon (1933-) - in 2012, he and Shinya Yamanaka were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be converted to stem cells

العناصر الكيميائية

  1. Potassium – isolated from caustic potash by Humphry Davy in 1807 using electrolysis.
  2. SodiumHumphry Davy first isolated sodium in 1807 from molten sodium hydroxide.
  3. Barium – isolated by electrolysis of molten barium salts by Humphry Davy in 1808.
  4. Boron – discovered by Humphry Davy who first used electrolysis to produce a brown precipitate from a solution of borates in 1808. He produced enough of the substance to identify it as an element but it wasn't until 1909 that pure boron was produced.
  5. Calcium – isolated by Humphry Davy in 1808 from a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide using electrolysis.
  6. Chlorine – Elemental chlorine was discovered in 1774 but was thought to be a compound and was called "dephlogisticated muriatic acid air". Humphry Davy named it Chlorine in 1810 after experimenting with it and declared it was an element.
  7. Magnesium – first produced/discovered in 1808 by Humphry Davy using electrolysis of a mixture of magnesia and mercury oxide.
  8. Strontium – known in mineral form but isolated as an element in 1808 by Humphry Davy from a mixture of strontium chloride and mercuric acid.
  9. Iodine – Discovered by Bernard Courtois in 1811, he lacked the resources to investigate the substance but gave samples to various researchers. It was named by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac who thought it either a compound of oxygen or an element. A few days later Humphry Davy stated it was a new element leading to wrangling between the two over who identified it first.
  10. Argon – discovered in 1894 by Lord Rayleigh and William Ramsey.


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الرؤساء

المديرون

  • Director of the Laboratory
  • Director of the Davy-Faraday Research Laboratory
  • Director
  • جدل اندرادي

    The exterior of the Royal Institution today

    جدل گرينفيلد

    متحف فاراداي

    قناة ري

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    المعهد الملكي في استراليا

    انظر أيضاً

    المصادر

    1. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
    2. ^ RI Presidents since 1799, Royal Institution website, accessed 26 February 2011

    وصلات خارجية

    الإحداثيات: 51°30′35″N 0°08′33″W / 51.5098°N 0.1425°W / 51.5098; -0.1425