بطيات

(تم التحويل من إوزيات)

بطيات
Anatidae
Whistling duck flight02 - natures pics-edit1.jpg
Black-bellied Whistling Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis)
التصنيف العلمي
مملكة: الحيوانية
Phylum: الحبليات
Class: طيور
Subclass: الطيور الحديثة
Infraclass: حديثات الفك
Superorder: Galloanserae
Order: أوزيات الشكل
Family: بطيات
Vigors 1825
تحت فصائل

Anatinae
أوزيات
Aythyinae
Dendrocygninae
Merginae
Oxyurinae
Plectropterinae
Stictonettinae
Tadorninae
Thalassorninae
and see text

البطيات Anatidae، هي فصيلة تشمل الأوز والبط والبجع.


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التصنيف

  • تحت فصيلة: Dendrocygninae (One pantropical genus, of distinctive long-legged goose-like birds)
  • تحت فصيلة: Thalassorninae (One genus in Africa, most closely related to the subfamily Dendrocygninae, though also showing convergent similarities to the subfamily Oxyurinae)
  • تحت فصيلة: الأوزيات, swans and geese (Three to seven extant genera with 25–30 living species, mainly cool temperate Northern Hemisphere but also some Southern Hemisphere species, with the swans in one genus [two genera in some treatments], and the geese in three genera [two genera in some treatments]. Some other species are sometimes placed herein, but seem somewhat more distinct [see below])
    • Cygnus, true swans (7 species, 4 sometimes separated in Olor)
    • Anser, grey geese (7 species)
    • Chen, white geese (3 species, sometimes included in Anser)
    • Branta, black geese (8 living species)
  • تحت فصيلة: Stictonettinae (One genus in Australia, formerly included in the Oxyurinae, but with anatomy suggesting a distinct ancient lineage perhaps closest to the Anserinae, especially the Cape Barren Goose)
  • تحت فصيلة: Plectropterinae (One genus in Africa, formerly included in the "perching ducks", but closer to the Tadorninae)
  • تحت فصيلة: Tadorninae – shelducks and sheldgeese(This group of larger, often semi-terrestrial waterfowl can be seen as intermediate between Anserinae and Anatinae. The 1986 revision[1] has resulted in the inclusion of 10 extant genera with about two dozen living species [one probably extinct] in this subfamily, mostly from the Southern Hemisphere but a few in the Northern Hemisphere, but the affiliations of several presumed tadornine genera has later been questioned[2] and the group in the traditional lineup is likely to be paraphyletic)
  • Subfamily: Anatinae, dabbling ducks and moa-nalos (The dabbling duck group, of worldwide distribution, were previously restricted to just one or two genera, but had been extended[1] to include 8 extant genera and about 55 living species, including several genera formerly known as the "perching ducks"; mtDNA on the other hand confirms that the genus Anas is over-lumped and casts doubt on the diving duck affiliations of several genera [see below]. The moa-nalos, of which 4 species in 3 genera are known to date, are a peculiar group of flightless, extinct Anatidae from the Hawaiian Islands. Gigantic in size and with massive bills, they were believed to be geese, but have been shown to be actually very closely related to mallard. They evolved filling the ecological niche of turtles, ungulates and other megaherbivores.)
  • Subfamily: Aythyinae, diving ducks (Some 15 species of diving ducks, of worldwide distribution, in 2–4 genera; The 1986 morphological analysis[1] suggested that the probably extinct Pink-headed Duck of India, previously treated separately in Rhodonessa, should be placed in Netta, but this has been questioned.[3] Furthermore, while morphologically close to dabbling ducks, the mtDNA data indicates that a treatment as distinct subfamily is indeed correct, with the Tadorninae being actually closer to dabbling ducks than the diving ducks are[2])
    • Netta, Red-crested Pochard and allies (4 species, one probably extinct)
    • Aythya, pochards, scaups, etc. (12 species)
  • Subfamily: Oxyurinae, stiff-tail ducks (A small group of 3–4 genera, 2–3 of them monotypic, with 7–8 living species)
    • Oxyura, stiff-tailed ducks (5 living species)
    • Nomonyx, Masked Duck
    • Biziura, Musk Ducks (1 living species, provisionally placed here)
    • Heteronetta, Black-headed Duck
  • Unresolved
    The rare White-winged Wood Duck, a species of unclear affiliation.
    Wood Duck Aix sponsa
    The largest degree of uncertainty concerns whether a number of genera are closer to the shelducks or to the dabbling ducks. See also the monotypic subfamilies above, and the "perching ducks"
    • Coscoroba, Coscoroba Swan – Anserinae or same subfamily as Cereopsis?
    • Cereopsis, Cape Barren Goose – Anserinae, Tadorninae, or own subfamily?
    • Cnemiornis, New Zealand geese (prehistoric) – as Cereopsis
    • Malacorhynchus, Pink-eared ducks (1 living species) – Tadorninae, Oxyurinae or Dendrocheninae?
    • Sarkidiornis, Comb Duck – Tadorninae or closer to dabbling ducks?
    • Tachyeres, steamer ducks (4 species) – Tadorninae or closer to dabbling ducks?
    • Cyanochen, Blue-winged Goose – Tadorninae or more distant clade?
    • Nettapus, pygmy geese (3 species) – Anatinae or part of Southern Hemisphere radiation?
    • Pteronetta, Hartlaub's Duck – traditionally dabbling ducks, but may be closer to Cyanochen
    • Cairina, Muscovy Duck and White-winged Wood Duck (2 species) – traditionally dabbling ducks, but may be paraphyletic, with one species in Tadorninae and the other closer to diving ducks
    • Aix, Mandarin Duck and Wood Duck (2 species) – dabbling ducks or Tadorninae?
    • Callonetta, Ringed Teal – dabbling ducks or Tadorninae?
    • Chenonetta, Maned Duck (1 living species) – dabbling ducks or Tadorninae? Includes Euryanas.
    • Marmaronetta, Marbled Duck – Formerly dabbling ducks; actually a diving duck or a distinct subfamily


أنواع فيما قبل التاريخ

The Australian Wood Duck is the only living member of the genus Chenonetta


حفريات البطيات

الهوامش

  1. ^ أ ب ت خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة livezey1986
  2. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Johnson
  3. ^ Collar, N. et al. (2001).

المصادر

  • Burney, David A.; James, Helen F.; Burney, Lida Pigott; Olson, Storrs L.; Kikuchi, William; Wagner, Warren L.; Burney, Mara; McCloskey, Deirdre; Kikuchi, Delores; Grady, Frederick V.; Gage, Reginald II & Nishek, Robert (2001): Fossil Evidence for a Diverse Biota from Kauaʻi and Its Transformation since Human Arrival. Ecological Monographs 71(4): 615–641. DOI:10.2307/3100038
  • Carboneras, Carles (1992): Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese and Swans). In: del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew & Sargatal, Jordi (eds.): Handbook of Birds of the World (Volume 1: Ostrich to Ducks): 536–629. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-10-5
  • Collar, N. J.; Andreev, A. V.; Chan, S.; Crosby, M. J.; Subramanya, S. & Tobias, J. A. (eds.) (2001): Pink-headed Duck. In:Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book: 489–501. BirdLife International. ISBN 0-946888-44-2 HTML fulltext
  • Gál, Erika; Hír, János; Kessler, Eugén & Kókay, József (1998–99): Középsõ-miocén õsmaradványok, a Mátraszõlõs, Rákóczi-kápolna alatti útbevágásból. I. A Mátraszõlõs 1. lelõhely [Middle Miocene fossils from the sections at the Rákóczi chapel at Mátraszőlős. Locality Mátraszõlõs I.]. Folia Historico Naturalia Musei Matraensis 23: 33–78. [Hungarian with English abstract] PDF fulltext
  • Johnsgard, Paul A. (2010): Ducks, Geese, and Swans of the World, Revised edition PDF fulltext
  • Johnsgard, Paul A. (2010): Waterfowl of North America, Revised edition PDF fulltext
  • Johnson, Kevin P. & Sorenson, Michael D. (1999): Phylogeny and biogeography of dabbling ducks (genus Anas): a comparison of molecular and morphological evidence. Auk 116(3): 792–805. PDF fulltext
  • Livezey, Bradley C. (1986): A phylogenetic analysis of recent anseriform genera using morphological characters. Auk 103(4): 737–754. PDF fulltext DjVu fulltext
  • Madge, Steve & Burn, Hilary (1987): Wildfowl : an identification guide to the ducks, geese and swans of the world. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7470-2201-1
  • McCracken, Kevin G. (2000): "The 20-cm Spiny Penis of the Argentine Lake Duck (Oxyura vittata)". The Auk 117(3) p. 820–825.
  • Short, Lester L. (1970): A new anseriform genus and species from the Nebraska Pliocene. Auk 87(3): 537–543. PDF fulltext
  • Sraml, M.; Christidis, L.; Easteal, S.; Horn, P. & Collet, C. (1996): Molecular Relationships Within Australasian Waterfowl (Anseriformes). Australian Journal of Zoology 44(1): 47–58. doi:10.1071/ZO9960047 (HTML abstract)
  • Steadman, David William (1999): The Prehistory of Vertebrates, Especially Birds, on Tinian, Aguiguan, and Rota, Northern Mariana Islands. Micronesica 31(2): 319–345. PDF fulltext
  • Terres, John K. & National Audubon Society (NAS) (1991): The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Wings Books, New York. Reprint of 1980 edition. ISBN 0517032880
  • Todd, Frank S. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 81–87. ISBN 1-85391-186-0.


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وصلات خارجية

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