إنجليزية وسطى

Middle English
الحقبةdeveloped into Early Modern English, Scots and Yola in Wexford by the 16th century
الصيغة المبكرة
أكواد اللغات
ISO 639-2enm
ISO 639-3enm
ISO 639-6meng
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

الانجليزية الوسطى هو الاسم الذي اطلقه علماء تاريخ اللغات على اللهجة والنطق الشائع للغة الانجليزية في فترة ما بين الاحتلال النورماندي في سنة 1066 ومنتصف القرن الخامس عشر. ترتبط هذه اللغة من حيث التركيب بظهور عدد من المصطلحات الجديديدة واختفاء اخرى.

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Archaic characters

The following characters can be found in Middle English text, direct holdovers from the Old English Latin alphabet.

letter name pronunciation comments
Æ æ Ash [æ] Ash may still be used as a variant of the digraph ae in many English words of Greek or Latin origin; and may be found in brand names or loan words.
Ð ð Eth [θ], [ð] Eth fell out of use during the 13th century and was replaced by thorn.
Ȝ ȝ Yogh [ɡ], [ɣ], [j] or [dʒ] Yogh lingered in some Scottish names as z, as in McKenzie with a z pronounced /j/. Yogh became indistinguishable from cursive z in Middle Scots and printers tended to use z when yogh was not available in their fonts.
Þ þ Thorn [θ], [ð] Thorn mostly fell out of use during the 14th century, and was replaced by th by 1400. Anachronistic usage of the scribal abbreviation has led to the modern mispronunciation of the letter EME ye.svg (þ) as y.[1]
Ƿ ƿ Wynn [w] (the group hƿ represents [hw~ʍ]) Wynn represented the Germanic /w/ phoneme, which had no correspondence in Vulgar Latin phonology (where classical /w/ had become /β/).

It mostly fell out of use, being replaced by w, during the 13th century. Due to its similarity to the letter p, it was mostly represented by w in modern editions of Old and Middle English texts even when the manuscript has wynn.


Chaucer, 1390s

The following is the beginning of the general Prologue from The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. The text was written in a dialect associated with London and spellings associated with the then-emergent Chancery Standard.

Original in Middle English:
Whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour;
Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth
Inspired hath in every holt and heeth
The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne
Hath in the Ram his halfe cours yronne,
And smale foweles maken melodye,
That slepen al the nyght with open ye
(So priketh hem Nature in hir corages);
Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages
And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes
To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes;
And specially from every shires ende
Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende,
The hooly blisful martir for to seke
That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seeke.
Translation into Modern English: (by Coghill)[2]
When in April the sweet showers fall
And pierce the drought of March to the root, and all
The veins are bathed in liquor of such power
As brings about the engendering of the flower,
When also Zephyrus with his sweet breath
Exhales an air in every grove and heath
Upon the tender shoots, and the young sun
His half course in the sign of the Ram has run
And the small fowl are making melody
That sleep away the night with open eye,
(So nature pricks them and their heart engages)
Then folk long to go on pilgrimages,
And palmers long to seek the stranger strands
Of far off saints, hallowed in sundry lands,
And specially from every shires’ end
Of England, down to Canterbury they wend
The holy blissful martyr, quick
To give his help to them when they were sick

See also

== المراجع ==

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, ye[2] retrieved February 1, 2009
  2. ^ Gleason, Paul (2002). "Don DeLillo, T.S. Eliot, and the Redemption of America's Atomic Waste Land". Underwords. Joseph Dewey, Steven G. Kellman and Irving Malin. Rosemont Publishing & Printing Corp. p. 131.
  • Brunner, Karl (1962) Abriss der mittelenglischen Grammatik; 5. Auflage. Tübingen: M. Niemeyer (1st ed. Halle (Saale): M. Niemeyer, 1938)
  • Brunner, Karl (1963) An Outline of Middle English Grammar; translated by Grahame Johnston. Oxford: Blackwell

وصلات خارجية

قالب:History of English قالب:Germanic philology