أسرة أهوم

أسرة أهوم Ahom dynasty ‏(1228–1826) حكمت مملكة أهوم في ما هو اليوم أسام، الهند لنحو 600 عام. الأسرة أسسها سوكفا، الأمير من شعب شان من مونگ ماو الذين قدِموا إلى أسام بعد عبور جبال پاتكاي. انتهى حكم تلك الأسرة بالغزو البورمي لأسام والضم اللاحق على يد شركة الهند الشرقية البريطانية إثر معاهدة ياندابو في 1826.

في سجلات القرون الوسطى، كان ملوك تلك الأسرة يُسمَون أسام راجا، بينما كان رعايا المملكة يسمونهم تشاوفا (تشاو-حاكم، فا-السماء)، أو لقب سوارگاديو Swargadeo (المكافئ في الأسامية) منذ القرن 16.


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خط زمني

Purandar SinghaJogeswar SinghaSudingphaaPurandar SinghaSudingphaaSuklingphaaSuhitpangphaaSunyeophaaSuremphaaSunenphaaSutanphaaSukhrungphaaSupaatphaaSulikphaaSudoiphaaSujinphaaGobar RojaSuhungSuklamphaaSunyatphaaSupangmungSutamlaSutingphaaSuramphaaSusenghphaaSukhaamphaaSuklenmungSuhungmungSupimphaaSuhenphaaSusenphaaSuphakphaaSujangphaaSudangphaaTyao KhamtiSutuphaaSukhrangphaSukhaangphaaSubinphaaSuteuphaaSukaphaa


سلالة سوارگاديو الحاكمة

In the nearly 600-years 39-Swargadeo dynastic history, there are three progenitor kings (all subsequent kings are descendants of these kings). They are Sukaphaa, who established the kingdom; Suhungmung, who made the greatest territorial and political expansion of the kingdom; and Supaatphaa, who established the House of Tungkhugia kings that reigned the kingdom during its political and cultural zenith, as well as the period of decay and end (except for Jogeswar Singha, who was a descendant of Supaatphaa's father Gobar, and who was installed as a puppet king by the Burmese).

The dynastic history and dates that are accepted today are the result of a re-examination of Ahom and other documents by a team of Nora astronomers and experts who were commissioned to do so by Gaurinath Singha (1780–1795).[1]

The list of Swargadeos of the Ahom Kingdom
السنوات العهد اسم أهوم الأسماء الأخرى الخلافة نهاية العهد العاصمة
1228–1268 40س سوكفا وفاة طبيعية Charaideo
1268–1281 13س Suteuphaa son of Sukaphaa natural death Charaideo
1281–1293 Subinphaa son of Suteuphaa natural death Charaideo
1293–1332 39س Sukhaangphaa son of Subinphaa natural death Charaideo
1332–1364 32س Sukhrangpha son of Sukhaangphaa natural death Charaideo
1364–1369 Interregnum[2]
1369–1376 Sutuphaa brother of Sukhrangphaa[3] assassinated[4] Charaideo
1376–1380 شغور العرش
1380–1389 تياو خامتي brother of Sutuphaa assassinated[5] Charaideo
1389–1397 شغور العرش
1397–1407 10y Sudangphaa Baamuni Kunwar son of Tyao Khaamti[6] natural death Charagua
1407–1422 15y Sujangphaa son of Sudangphaa natural death
1422–1439 17y Suphakphaa son of Sujangpha natural death
1439–1488 49y Susenphaa son of Suphakphaa natural death
1488–1493 5y Suhenphaa son of Susenphaa assassinated[7]
1493–1497 4y Supimphaa son of Suhenphaa natural death
1497–1539 42y Suhungmung Swarganarayan,
Dihingiaa Rojaa I
son of Supimphaa assassinated[8] Bakata
1539–1552 13y Suklenmung Garhgayaan Rojaa son of Suhungmung natural death Garhgaon
1552–1603 51y Sukhaamphaa Khuraa Rojaa son of Suklenmung natural death Garhgaon
1603–1641 38y Susenghphaa Prataap Singha,
Burhaa Rojaa,
Buddhiswarganarayan
son of Sukhaamphaa natural death Garhgaon
1641–1644 3y Suramphaa Jayaditya Singha,
Bhogaa Rojaa
son of Susenghphaa deposed[9] Garhgaon
1644–1648 4y Sutingphaa Noriyaa Rojaa brother of Suramphaa deposed[10] Garhgaon
1648–1663 15y Sutamla Jayadhwaj Singha,
Bhoganiyaa Rojaa
son of Sutingphaa natural death Garhgaon/Bakata
1663–1670 7y Supangmung Chakradhwaj Singha cousin of Sutamla[11] natural death Bakata/Garhgaon
1670–1672 2y Sunyatphaa Udayaditya Singha brother of Supangmung[12] deposed[13]
1672–1674 2y Suklamphaa Ramadhwaj Singha brother of Sunyatphaa poisoned[14]
1674–1675 21d Suhung Samaguria Rojaa Samaguria descendant of Suhungmung deposed[15]
1675-1675 24d Gobar Roja great-grandson of Suhungmung[16] deposed[17]
1675–1677 2y Sujinphaa Arjun Konwar,
Dihingia Rojaa II
grandson of Pratap Singha, son of Namrupian Gohain deposed, suicide[18]
1677–1679 2y Sudoiphaa Parvatia Rojaa great-grandson of Suhungmung[19] deposed, killed[20]
1679–1681 3y Sulikphaa Ratnadhwaj Singha,
Loraa Rojaa
Samaguria family deposed, killed[21]
1681–1696 15y Supaatphaa Gadadhar Singha son of Gobar Rojaa natural death Borkola
1696–1714 18y Sukhrungphaa Rudra Singha son of Supaatphaa natural death Rangpur
1714–1744 30y Sutanphaa Siba Singha son Sukhrungphaa natural death
1744–1751 7y Sunenphaa Pramatta Singha brother of Sutanphaa natural death
1751–1769 18y Suremphaa Rajeswar Singha brother of Sunenphaa natural death
1769–1780 11س Sunyeophaa Lakshmi Singha brother of Suremphaa natural death
1780–1795 15س Suhitpangphaa Gaurinath Singha son of Sunyeophaa natural death Jorhat
1795–1811 16س Suklingphaa Kamaleswar Singha great-grandson of Lechai, the brother of Rudra Singha[22] وفاة طبيعية، جدري Jorhat
1811–1818 17س Sudingphaa (1) Chandrakaanta Singha brother of Suklingphaa deposed[23] Jorhat
1818–1819 Purandar Singha (1) descendant of Suremphaa[23] deposed[24] Jorhat
1819–1821 Sudingphaa (2) Chandrakaanta Singha fled the capital[25]
1821–1822 Jogeswar Singha brother of Hemo Aideo, puppet of Burmese ruler[26] removed[27]
1833–1838 Purandar Singha (2)[28]


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الهامش

  1. ^ (Gogoi 1968:534–535)
  2. ^ Gogoi records that Sukhrangphaa died without leaving a son and the two ministers administered the kingdom without a king for five years (Gogoi 1968, p. 273). Gait and others do not record this (Gait 1906, p. 358), though Baruah does (Baruah 1983, p. 282)
  3. ^ Sutuphaa was the younger brother of Sukhrangphaa, who was settled in a village called Lahanjing. He was invited by the Burhagohain and Borgohain to become the king and he set up his seat at Chapagurinagar (Gogoi 1968, p. 273)
  4. ^ Sukhramphaa was assassinated by the king of the Chutiya kingdom on a barge ride on Suffry river (Gogoi 1968:273).
  5. ^ Sukhangphaa and his chief queen were deposed and executed by the ministers for their autocratic rule (Gogoi 1968:274).
  6. ^ Sudangphaa Bamuni Konwar was born to the second queen of Tyao Khamti in a Brahmin household of Habung (Gogoi 1968:274–275).
  7. ^ Suhenphaa was speared to death in his palace by a Tai-Turung chief in revenge for being accused of theft (Gogoi 1968:282).
  8. ^ Suhungmung was assassinated by a palace staff in a plot engineered by his son, Suklenmung (Gogoi 1968:309).
  9. ^ Suramphaa was deposed by the ministers when he insisted on burying alive a son of each minister in the tomb of his dead step-son (Gogoi 1968:386). He was later murdered on the instructions of his nephew, the son of his brother and succeeding Swargadeo.
  10. ^ Sutingphaa was a sickly king (Noriaya Raja), who participated in an intrigue by his chief queen to install a prince unpopular with the ministers. He was deposed and later murdered on the instructions of his son and successor king Sutamla (Gogoi 1968:391–392).
  11. ^ Supangmung was grandson of Suleng (Deo Raja), the second son of Suhungmung (Gogoi 1968:448).
  12. ^ The Maju Gohain, the brother of Chakradhwaj Singha, became the king. (Gogoi 1968, p. 470)
  13. ^ Udayaaditya Sinha's palace was stormed by his brother (and successor king) with a thousand-strong contingent of men led by Lasham Debera, and the king was executed the next day. Udayaaditya's religious fanaticism under the influence of a godman had made him unpopular, and the three great gohains implicitly supported this group (Gogoi 1968:479–482). This event started a very unstable nine-year period of weak kings, dominated by Debera Borbarua, Atan Burhagohain and Laluk-sola Borphukan in succession. This period ended with the accession of Gadadhar Singha.
  14. ^ Ramadhwaj Sinha was poisoned on the instructions of Debera Borbarua when he tried to assert his authority (Gogoi 1968:484).
  15. ^ The Samaguria raja was deposed by Debera Borbarua, the de facto ruler, and later executed, along with his queen and her brother (Gogoi 1968:486).
  16. ^ Gobar Rojaa was the son of Saranga, the son of Suten, the son of Suhungmung Dihingiya Roja.
  17. ^ Gobar Raja was deposed and executed by the Saraighatias (the commanders of Saraighat/Guwahati), led by Atan Burhagohain (Gogoi 1968:486–488). Their target was the de facto ruler, Debera Borbarua, who was also executed.
  18. ^ Sujinphaa Arjun Konwar tried to assert control by moving against the de facto ruler, Atan Burhagohain, but was routed in a skirmish. Sujinphaa was blinded and held captive when he committed suicide by striking his head against a stone (Gogoi 1968:489).
  19. ^ Sudoiphaa was the grandson of Suhungmung's third son, Suteng (Gogoi & 1968 490).
  20. ^ Sudoiphaa was deposed by Laluk-sola Borphukan, who styled himself as the Burhaphukan, and later executed. Atan Burhagohain, the powerful minister, had been executed earlier (Gogoi 1968:492–493).
  21. ^ Sulikphaa Lora Roja was deposed and then executed by Gadadhar Singha (Gogoi 1968:496–497).
  22. ^ Kamaleswar Singha was installed as the king by Purnananda Burhagohain when he was still an infant. He was the son of Kadam Dighala, the son of Ayusut, the son of Lechai, the second son of Gadadhar Singha. Kadam Dighala, who could not become the king because of physical blemishes, was an important influence during the reign (Baruah 1993:148–150).
  23. ^ أ ب Chandrakanta Singha was deposed by Ruchinath Burhagohain, mutilated and confined as a prisoner near Jorhat (Baruah 1992:221). The Burhagohain choose Brajanath, a descendant of Suremphaa Pramatta Singha, as the king and coins were struck in the new king's name, but it was discovered that he had mutilations on his person and his son, Purandar Singha, was instated instead (Gait 1906:223).
  24. ^ Purandar Singha's forces under Jaganath Dhekial Phukan defeated the forces led by the Burmese general Kee-Woomingee (Kiamingi or Alumingi Borgohain) on February 15, 1819, but due to a strategic mistake Jorhat fell into Burmese hands. Kiamingi brought back Chandrakanta Singha and installed him the king (Baruah 1992:221–222).
  25. ^ Chandrakanta Singha fled to Guwahati when the army of Bagyidaw king of Burma, led by Mingimaha Tilwa, approached Jorhat (Baruah 1992:223).
  26. ^ Jogeshwar Singha was the brother of Hemo Aideu, one of the queens of Bagyidaw. He was installed as the king by Mingimaha Tilwa (Baruah 1992:223).
  27. ^ Jogeshwar Singha was removed from all pretense of power and Mingimaha Tilwa was declared the "Raja of Assam" toward the end of June, 1822 (Baruah 1992:225).
  28. ^ Purandar Singha was set up by the East India Company as the tributary Raja of Upper Assam (Baruah 1992:244).

المراجع

  • Baruah, S. L. (1993), Last Days of Ahom Monarchy, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, New Delhi 
  • Gait, Edward (1906), A History of Assam, Thacker, Spink & Co, Calcutta 
  • Gogoi, Nitul Kumar (2006), Continuity And Change Among The Tai-Ahom, Concept Publishing Company 
  • Gogoi, Padmeshwar (1968), The Tai and the Tai kingdoms, Gauhati University, Guwahati 

وصلات خارجية