أباطرة الثكنات

أباطرة الثكنات Barracks emperor (ويُسمَّون أيضاً "الأباطرة العسكريون") كانوا أباطرة رومان استولوا على السلطة بفضل قيادتهم للجيش. وكان أباطرة الثكنات أمراً شائعاً بشكل خاص في الفترة من 235 حتى 284، أثناء أزمة القرن الثالث. وقد بلغ عددهم تقريباً أربعة عشر امبراطوراً من الثكنات في 33 عاماً، أي أن متوسط فترة حكم كل منهم تزيد قليلاً عن سنتين. عدم الاستقرار الناتج في المكتب الامبراطوري وحالة الحرب الأهلية شبه الثابتة والتمردات، كل أولئك هدد بتدمير الامبراطورية الرومانية من الداخل وتركها عرضة للهجمات من الخارج.

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القائمة

الحكم الحاكم ملاحظات
February/March 235 to March/April 238 Maximinus Thrax Murdered by troops
مطلع 238 گورديان الأول governor in Africa, declared co-emperor with his son Gordian II by popular demand. Committed suicide after defeat in battle against the governor of Numidia
earlyJanuary March 238 to lateJanuary/April 238 گورديان الثاني Son of and co-emperor with Gordian I. Killed in battle against the governor of Numidia
أبريل إلى يوليو 238 پوپينوس و بالبينوس Senators elected as co-emperors by Roman Senate upon the failure of the African rebellion. Murdered by the Praetorians
May 238 to February 244 گورديان الثالث Grandson of Gordian I - elected by Senate at 13. Either killed in battle against Persians under Shapur I in modern-day Iraq (Roman histories do not mention the battle) or murdered by the Praetorian Prefect Philip, who succeeded him as Philip the Arab
240 to 240 Sabinianus Proclaimed himself emperor; defeated in battle
February 244 to September/October 249 فيليپ العربي قُتل في معركة على يد دكيوس بالقرب من مدينة ڤـِرونا الحالية
248 to 248 پكانتيوس Proclaimed himself emperor; murdered by his own soldiers
248 to 248 يوتاپيانوس Claimant
248 to 248 سلبناكوس Usurper
249 حتى يونيو 251 دكيوس عيّنه فيليپ العربي ليهزم پكانتيوس. Proclaimed emperor by the Danubian armies. Killed in battle against the Goths
249 to 252 Priscus Proclaimed himself emperor in the Eastern provinces with Gothic support
250 to 250 Licinianus Claimant
early251 to 1 July 251 هرنيوس إتروسكوس Co-emperor with his father Decius. Killed in battle against Goths
251 to 251 هوستليان Younger brother of Herennius Etruscus, whom he succeeded as emperor. His authority did not extend far beyond Rome, where he soon died in an outbreak of plague
June 251 to August 253 Gallus Proclaimed emperor by the army after the deaths of Decius and Herennius Etruscus. Co-ruled with his son Volusianus. Murdered by his own soldiers
July 251 to August 253 Volusianus Co-emperor with his father Trebonianus Gallus. Murdered by his own soldiers
August 253 to October 253 إميليانوس Governor of Moesia Superior and Pannonia who defeated a Gothic army and was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers. Murdered by his own soldiers when they saw that they could not defeat the army of Valerian, who came to avenge Trebonianus Gallus
253 to June 260 ڤالريان Governor of the Rhine provinces. Co-emperor with Gallienus; captured by Persians: died in captivity
253 to September 268 Gallienus Co-emperor with Valerian 253 to 260, sole emperor from 260 to 268; murdered
258 or June 260 Ingenuus Proclaimed himself emperor
260 رگاليانوس Proclaimed emperor
260 to 261 ماكريانوس الأكبر Proclaimed emperor; defeated and killed in battle
260 to 261 Quietus Claimant
261 to 261 or 262 Mussius Aemilianus Proclaimed emperor
268 to 268 أوريولوس Proclaimed himself emperor; استسلم لـكلاوديوس الثاني گوثيكوس


أباطرة الثكنات المبكرون

حين نمد مفهوم أباطرة الثكنات ليشمل أي امبراطور عيّنه الجيش notion of a barracks emperor is extended to any emperor that was appointed by the army, more emperors whose reign predates the 3rd century can be included:

  • The first known emperor that was appointed by the Praetorian Guards after the murder of كاليگولا، كان كلاوديوس.
  • A notable case took place after the murder of emperor Pertinax. Praetorian Guards had come to the point when they simply sold the throne off, by auctioning it to the highest bidder, selling it to one of the richest Romans at the time, ديديوس يوليانوس.