أباتشي (قبيلة)

أباتشي
Apache portraits.jpg
Apache portraits
المناطق ذات التجمعات المعتبرة
أريزونا، نيو مكسيكو و أوكلاهوما
اللغات
Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan Apache, Plains Apache, Mescalero, الأباتشي الغربية
الدين
الكنيسة الأمريكية الأصلية، المسيحية، الشامانية دين القبلية
الجماعات العرقية ذات الصلة
Navajo, Dene
أباتشي

أباتشي أو أباش (Apache) (play /əˈpæ/; بالفرنسية: [a.paʃ]) هي مجموعة من قبائل الهنود الحمر السكان الأصليين لامريكا الشمالية. لغتهم لغة أثاباسكان الجنوبية، والتعريف الحديث لهم يستثني شعب نافويا المتقارب. هاجموا حضارتي المايا والتولتك.وقاوموا الأسبان في مطلع القرن 16 عندما غزوا المكسيك. وكلمة(أباش) بالأسبانية معناها سفلة. وكان الأباش يمارسون صيد الجاموس الوحشي والخيول عن طر يق تقفي الأثر والتربص والانقضاض. وكانوا برقصون رقصة الحرب مع دق الطبول ودهان أجسامهم باللون الأحمر. وكانوا يسيرون للحرب علي صوت النفر المصنوع من قرن الجاموس.

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مجموعات أباتشي المعاصرة

Apachean tribes ca. 18th century: WA – Western Apache, N – Navajo, Ch – Chiricahua, M – Mescalero, J – Jicarilla, L – Lipan, Pl – Plains Apache

قالب:Imagequote2

Present-day primary locations of Apachean peoples


الإسم والمرادفات

صعوبات في تسمية

Essa-queta, Plains Apache chief

قائمة أسماء

التاريخ

الدخول الى الجنوب الغربي

The Coronado Expedition, 1540–1542

الصراع مع المكسيك والولايات المتحدة


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الترحيل القسري

الهزيمة

Pre-reservation culture

المنظمات الإجتماعية

خطأ في إنشاء صورة مصغرة: الملف مفقود
Apache bride

Kinship systems

Chiricahua
Hide painting depicting Apache girl's puberty ceremony, by Naiche (Chiricahua Apache), ca. 1900, Oklahoma History Center
Jicarilla

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الإسكان

Frame of Apache wickiup
Chiricahua medicine man in wickiup with family

الغذاء

Various Apache containers: baskets, bowls and jars. The women-made baskets could hold heavy loads and were made mainly from yucca or willow leaves or juniper bark.[2]

الصيد

Apache jug

الملابس

استحداث نباتات جديدة ومصادر غذائية أخرى

Apache girl with basket, 1902

زراعة المحاصيل

التجارة، الإغارة، والحرب

الدين

اللغات

Proto-
Athabascan
Navajo Western
Apache
Chiricahua Mescalero Jicarilla Lipan Plains
Apache
*k̯uʔs "handle fabric-like object" -tsooz -tsooz -tsuuz -tsuudz -tsoos -tsoos -tsoos
*ce· "stone" tsé tséé tsé tsé tsé tsí tséé
Western Eastern
Navajo Western
Apache
Chiricahua Mescalero Jicarilla Lipan Plains
Apache
"water" kóó
"fire" kǫʼ kǫʼ kųų ko̱ʼ kǫǫʼ kǫʼ
Proto-
Athabascan
Navajo Chiricahua Mescalero Jicarilla Plains
Apache
*k̯aʔx̣ʷ "big" -tsaa -tsaa -tsaa -tsaa -cha
Low-Marked High-Marked
Proto-
Athabascan
Navajo Chiricahua Slavey Chilcotin
*taʔ "father" -taaʼ -taa -táʼ -tá
*tu· "water"

مشاهير أباتشي

انظر أيضاً

Apache rawhide playing cards, ca. 1875–1885, collection of NMAI

الهوامش

  1. ^ Census.gov Census 2000 PHC-T-18. American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes in the United States: 2000. US Census Bureau 2000 (retrieved December 28, 2009)
  2. ^ Carolyn Casey. The Apache, Marshall Cavendish, 2006, p. 18

قائمة المراجع

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  • Opler, Morris E. (1983c). "Mescalero Apache", in A. Ortiz (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest (Vol. 10, pp. 419–439). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
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وصلات خارجية

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