تقويم أرمني

(تم التحويل من التقويم الأرمني)

تقويم أرمني هو التقويم التقليدي لأرمينيا. وهو التقويم الشمسي حسب التقويم المصري، حيث هناك 365 يوما في العام. ونتيجة لذلك هناك علاقة بينه وبين تقويم جوليان الذي يتغير ببطء مع مرور الوقت.

(such as year 769 on AD 1320 January 1, year 770 on AD 1320 December 31, and year 1032 on AD 1582 October 27 = Gregorian November 6). Some references report that the first month of the year, Navasard, corresponds to the start of Spring in the northern hemisphere, but that was only true from the 9th through 10th centuries. The current year, 1461, is the last of the great Armenian cycle of 1,461 wandering years which equal 1,460 Julian years. (See Sothic cycle). Next year, 1462, begins on 24 July 2012 (Gregorian), 11 July (Julian). Year 1 began on 11 July AD 552 (Julian).

The year consists of twelve months of 30 days each, plus five extra days (epagomenê) that belong to no month.

Years are given in the Armenian alphabet by the letters ԹՎ t’v, a siglum for t’vin "in the year" followed by one to four letters of the Armenian alphabet, each of which stands for an Armenian numeral. For example, "in the year 1455 [AD 2006]" would be written ԹՎ ՌՆԾԵ.

The Armenian month names show influence of the Zoroastrian calendar, and, as noted by Antoine Meillet, Kartvelian influence in two cases. There are different systems for transliterating the names; the forms below are transliterated according to Hübschmann-Meillet-Benveniste system:

1 նաւասարդ nawasard Avestan *nava sarəδa "new year"
2 հոռի hoṙi ori "two"
3 սահմի sahmi sami "three"
4 տրէ trē Zoroastrian Tïr
5 քաղոց kʿałocʿ "month of crops"; Zoroastrian Ameretat (the deity Ameretat was also considered a protector of plants)
6 արաց aracʿ
7 մեհեկան mehekan Iranian *mihrakān- ("festival of Mithra", from Zoroastrian Mitrō)
8 արեգ areg "sun month"; Zoroastrian Āvān
9 ահեկան ahekan Iranian *āhrakān- "fire festival" from Zoroastrian Ātarō
10 մարերի mareri Avestan maiδyaīrya "mid-year"; Zoroastrian Dīn
11 մարգաց margacʿ Zoroastrian Vohūman
12 հրոտից hroticʿ Pahlavi *fravartakān "epagomenal days (days of the Fravashi)"; Zoroastrian Spendarmat̰

The Armenian calendar names the days of the month instead of numbering them, a peculiarity also found in the Avestan calendars. Zoroastrian influence is evident in at least five names. The names are 1. Areg "sun", 2. Hrand, 3. Aram, 4. Margar "prophet", 5. Ahrank’ "half-burned", 6. Mazdeł, 7. Astłik "Venus", 8. Mihr (Mithra), 9. Jopaber, 10. Murç "triumph", 11. Erezhan "hermit", 12. Ani, 13. Parxar, 14. Vanat, 15. Aramazd (Ahura Mazda), 16. Mani "beginning", 17. Asak "beginningless", 18. Masis (Mount Ararat), 19. Anahit (Anahita), 20. Aragac, 21. Gorgor, 22. Kordi (a district of Ancient Armenia considered the homeland of the Kurds), 23. Cmak "east wind", 24. Lusnak "half-moon", 25. C̣rōn "dispersion", 26.Npat (Apam Napat), 27. Vahagn (Zoroastrian Vahrām from Avestan Verethragna, name of the 20th day), 28. Sēin "mountain", 29. Varag, 30. Gišeravar "evening star". The five epagomenal days are called Aveleacʿ "superfluous".

العلاقة مع التقويم المصري

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وصلات خارجية

هناك كتاب ، Armenian، في معرفة الكتب.


مطبوعات

  • V. Bănăţeanu, “Le calendrier arménien et les anciens noms des mois”, in: Studia et Acta Orientalia 10, 1980, pp. 33–46
  • Edouard Dulaurier, Recherches sur la chronologie arménienne technique et historique (1859), 2001 reprint ISBN 978-0543966476.
  • Jost Gippert, Old Armenian and Caucasian Calendar Systems in The Annual of The Society for The Study of Caucasia“, 1, 1989, 3-12.[1][2]
  • Louis H. Gray, On Certain Persian and Armenian Month-Names as Influenced by the Avesta Calendar, Journal of the American Oriental Society (1907)
  • P'. Ingoroq'va, “Jvel-kartuli c'armartuli k'alendari” (“The Old Georgian pagan calendar”), in: Sakartvelos muzeumis moambe (“Messenger of the Museum of Georgia”), 6, 1929–30, pp. 373–446 and 7, 1931–32, pp. 260–336
  • K'. K'ek'elije, “Jveli kartuli c'elic'adi” (“The Old Georgian year”), in: St'alinis saxelobis Tbilisis Saxelmc'ipo Universit'et'is šromebi (“Working papers of the Tbilisi State University by the name of Stalin”) 18, 1941, reprinted in the author's “Et'iudebi jveli kartuli lit'erat'uris ist'oriidan” (“Studies in the history of Old Georgian literature”) 1, 1956, pp. 99–124.