فرانز شميت

(تم التحويل من Franz Schmidt)
هذا المقال هو عن the musician. إذا كنت تريد the executioner، انظر Franz Schmidt (executioner).

فرانز شميدت Franz Schmidt (ولد 1874 وتوفى 1939) مؤلف موسيقي نمساوي وعازف تشيللو وبيانو

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حياته

عازف بيانو محترم ومكرم وعازف تشيللو ومايسترو ومدرس في فيينا وجد شميت ايضا الوقت ليكتب بعض الأعمال المبهرة واسعة النطاق. هذه الاعمال دائما تعكس الاثر المجري لانه كان من اسرة المانية تتحدث المجرية وايضا تعكس انجاز رومانسي-كلاسيكي وفي الاعمال الرائعة للارغن تعكس تأثير يوهان سباستيان باخ. لم تكن حياة شميت سهلة فكان يحارب ضد الصحة المعتلة طوال حياته وزوجته الاولى المريضة عقليا قلتها النازيون وابنته خلد ذكراها في السمفونية رقم 4 (والاخيرة) ماتت بعد وقت قصير من الميلاد. كانت سمفونياته هي التي حققت له اكبر شهرة رغم ان اوبراه Notre Dame وهي إنترميتزو أوركسترالي باسلوب غجري كانت ايضا نجاحا دوليا.


The Book with Seven Seals

المقالة الرئيسية: The Book with Seven Seals

Symphonies

  • Symphony No. 1 in E major.
    Written in 1896 at age 22. The scherzo of this precociously accomplished symphony (which shows a mature absorption of Bruckner and Richard Strauss) is especially noteworthy, while Schmidt demonstrates his contrapuntal skills in the Finale.
  • Symphony No. 2 in E flat major.
    Written in 1913 in a style reminiscent of Strauss and Reger, with homage to the grandiosity of Bruckner. This is Schmidt's longest symphony in terms of duration and employs a huge orchestra. The central movement (of three) is a highly ingenious set of variations, which are grouped to suggest the characters of slow movement and scherzo. The complex scoring of this magnificent symphony renders it a considerable challenge for most orchestras.
  • Symphony No. 3 in A major.
    A sunny, melodic work in the Schubert vein (although its lyricism and superb orchestration do much to conceal the fact that it is one of the composer's most harmonically advanced works). Winner of the Austrian section of the 1928 International Columbia Graphophone Competition, it enjoyed some popularity at the time (1928).
  • Symphony No. 4 in C major.
    Written in 1933, this is the best-known work of his entire oeuvre. The composer called it "A requiem for my daughter". It begins with a long 23-bar melody on an unaccompanied solo trumpet (which returns at the symphony's close, "transfigured" by all that has intervened). The Adagio is an immense ABA ternary structure. The first A is an expansive threnody on solo cello (Schmidt's own instrument) whose seamless lyricism predates Strauss's Metamorphosen by more than a decade (its theme is later adjusted to form the scherzo of the symphony); the B section is an equally expansive funeral march (deliberately referencing Beethoven's Eroica in its texture) whose dramatic climax is marked by an orchestral crescendo culminating in a gong and cymbal crash (again, a clear allusion to similar climaxes in the later symphonies of Bruckner, and followed by what Harold Truscott has brilliantly described as a "reverse climax", leading back to a repeat of the A section).


قائمة الاعمال

Operas

  • Notre Dame, romantic Opera in two acts, text after Victor Hugo by Franz Schmidt and Leopold Wilk; comp. 1902-4, premiered Vienna 1914
  • Fredigundis, Opera in three acts, text after Felix Dahn by Bruno Warden and Ignaz Welleminsky; comp. 1916-21, premiered Berlin 1922

Oratorio

  • Das Buch mit sieben Siegeln (The Book with Seven Seals) for Soli, Chorus, Organ and Orchestra, Text after the Revelation of St John; comp. 1935-37; premiered Vienna, 1938

Cantata

  • Deutsche Auferstehung a Festival Song for Soli, Chorus, Organ and Orchestra, Text by Oskar Dietrich; comp. 1938-39, unfinished, prepared for performance by Dr. Robert Wagner; premiered Vienna, 1940

Symphonies

  • Symphony No. 1 in E major; comp. 1896-99, premiered Vienna 1902
  • Symphony No. 2 in E flat major; comp. 1911-13, premiered Vienna 1913
  • Symphony No. 3 in A major; comp. 1927-28, premiered Vienna 1928
  • Symphony No. 4 in C major; comp. 1932-33, premiered Vienna 1934

Piano Concerti

  • Concertante Variations on a Theme of Beethoven for Piano (left hand alone) with orchestral accompaniment; comp. 1923, premiered Vienna 1924; Two-handed arrangement by Friedrich Wührer (1952)
  • Piano concerto in E flat major (for left hand alone); comp. 1934, premiered: Vienna 1935; Two-handed version by Friedrich Wührer (1952)

Various Orchestral Works

  • Carnival music and Intermezzo from the Opera Notre Dame; comp. 1902-03; premiered Vienna 1903
  • Variations on a Hussar Song for orchestra; comp. 1930-31; premiered Vienna 1931
  • Chaconne in D minor; transcribed from the Chaconne in C sharp minor from 1925; completed 1931; Manuscript

Chamber music

  • Four little Fantasy pieces after Hungarian national melodies, for cello with piano accompaniment; comp. 1892; premiered Vienna 1926 (three pieces)
  • String Quartet in A major; comp. 1925; premiered Vienna 1925
  • String Quartet in G major; comp. 1929; premiered Vienna 1930
  • Quintet for piano (left hand alone), two violins, viola and cello in G major; comp. 1926; premiered Stuttgart 1931; two-handed arrangement by Friedrich Wührer (1954)
  • Quintet for clarinet, piano (for left hand alone), violin, viola and cello in B major; comp. 1932; premiered Vienna 1933
  • Quintet for clarinet, piano (for left hand alone), violin, viola and cello in A major; comp. 1938; premiered Vienna 1939; two-handed arrangement by Friedrich Wührer (1952)

Music for Trumpets

  • Variations and Fugue on an original Theme in D major (King's Fanfare from Fredigundis); 3. Arrangement for Trumpets alone; comp. 1925, premiered 1925

Music for Organ and Trumpet

  • Variations and Fugue on an original Theme in D major (King's Fanfare from Fredigundis); 4. Arrangement for 14 Trumpets, Kettledrum and Organ; comp. 1925, premiered Vienna 1925
  • Choral overture "God preserve us" for Organ with ad libitum processional Trumpet-chorus; comp. 1933, premiered Vienna 1933
  • Solemn Fugue (Fuga solemnis) for Organ with Entrance of 6 Trumpets, 6 Horns, 3 Trombones, Bass Tuba and Kettledrums; comp. 1937, premiered Wien 1939

Piano music

  • Romance in A major
  • Christmas pastorale in A major (= Organ work, arrangement)
  • Intermezzo F sharp minor (2nd movement of the A major Quintet)
  • Toccata in D minor (for left hand alone); comp. 1938, premiered: Vienna 1940 (two-handed arrangement); two-handed arrangement by Friedrich Wührer (1952)

Organ works

  • Variations on a theme by Christoph Willibald Gluck (lost)
  • Variations and Fugue on an original theme in D major (King's Fanfare from Fredigundis), 1. Arrangement; comp. 1916
  • Phantasie and Fugue in D major; comp. 1923-24, premiered Vienna 1924
  • Variations and Fugue on an original theme in D major (King's Fanfare from Fredigundis), 2. Arrangement; comp. 1924, premiered Vienna 1924
  • Toccata in C major; comp. 1924, premiered Vienna 1925
  • Prelude and Fugue in E flat major; comp. 1924, premiered Vienna 1925
  • Chaconne in C sharp minor; comp. 1925, premiered Vienna 1925
  • Four small Chorale preludes; comp. 1926, premiered Vienna 1926
"O Ewigkeit du Donnerwort" (O Eternity thou Thundrous Word), F major
"Was mein Gott will" (What My God Wills), D major
"O, wie selig seid ihr doch, ihr Frommen" (O How Happy Are Ye Now, You Blessed), D minor
"Nun danket alle Gott" (Now Thank We All Our God), A major
  • Fugue in F major; comp. 1927, premiered Vienna 1932
  • Prelude and Fugue in C major; comp. 1927, premiered Vienna 1928
  • Four little Preludes and Fugues; comp. 1928, premiered Berlin 1929
Prelude and Fugue in E flat major
Prelude and Fugue in C minor
Prelude and Fugue in G major
Prelude and Fugue in D major
  • Chorale Prelude, "Der Heiland ist erstanden"; comp. 1934, premiered Vienna 1934
  • Prelude and Fugue in A major, Christmas pastoral; comp. 1934, premiered Vienna 1934
  • Toccata and Fugue A flat major; comp. 1935, premiered Vienna 1936

هوامش

المراجع

  • Thomas Bernard Corfield - Franz Schmidt (1874-1939) - A Discussion of His Style With Particular Reference to the Four Symphonies and 'Das Buch mit sieben Siegeln (Garland Publishing, New York, 1989)
  • Harold Truscott - The Music of Franz Schmidt - 1: The Orchestral Music (Toccata Press, London, 1984)
  • Wilhelm Altmann - Handbuch für Streichquartettspieler (Handbook for String quartet performers) (Hinrichshofen Verlag, Wilhelmshafen, 1972)
  • Otto Brusatti, Studien zu Franz Schmidt (Studies of Franz Schmidt) (Universal Edition, Vienna 1977)
  • Andreas Liess, Franz Schmidt (Böhlau, Graz 1951)
  • C. Nemeth, Franz Schmidt (Leipzig 1957)
  • Walter Obermaier (Ed.), Franz Schmidt und seine Zeit (Franz Schmidt and his time): Symposium 1985 (Doblinger, Vienna-Munich 1988).
  • Carmen Ottner, Quellen zu Franz Schmidt (Sources for Franz Schmidt), Parts 1 and 2. (Doblinger, Vienna-Munich 1985-1987)
  • Carmen Ottner (Hrsg.): Franz Schmidt und die österreichische Orgelmusik seiner Zeit (Franz Schmidt, and Austrian Organ-Music of his time): Symposion 1991 (Doblinger, Vienna 1992), ISBN 3-900695-24-5
  • Norbert Tschulik: Franz Schmidt (Österreichischer Bundesverlag, Wien 1972)
  • Peter Watchorn: Isolde Ahlgrimm, Vienna and the early music revival (Ashgate, Burlington Vermont; Aldershot UK; 2007), ISBN 978-0-7546-5787-3

المصدر

dk eywitness companions classical music

روابط خارجية

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